Terms and abbreviations

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A1 and A2 A1 shall mean the activity value of special form radioactive material that is listed in Table 2 or derived in Section IV and is used to determine the activity limits for the requirements of these Regulations. A2 shall mean the activity value of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, that is listed in Table 2 or derived in Section IV and is used to determine the activity limits for the requirements of these Regulations.

Refers to the taking up of gases of vapors by liquids and/or solids where the gas or vapor fully penetrates the liquid of solid (adsorption is limited to the surface)

Acceleration of shipment

Negative and positive accelerations are dynamic, mechanical stresses which occur in two main types during the transportation of goods:

  • regular acceleration forces and
  • irregular acceleration forces

Regular acceleration forces primarily occur in maritime transport. Acceleration of up to one g (g=9.81[m/s2])and, in extreme cases, even more, may occur due to rolling and pitching in rough seas. Such regular acceleration forces have an impact on the effort involved in load securing.
Irregular acceleration forces occur during cornering or when a train passes over switches, during braking, starting up, hoisting and lowering. Such acceleration forces are not generally repeated, but they may occur several times at varying intensities during transport. These are the typical stresses of land transport and transport, handling and storage operations.

Accompanied combined transport Transport of a complete road vehicle, accompanied by the driver, using another mode of transport (for example ferry or train).
Acid value The acid value specifies how many milligrams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) are necessary to neutralize the free Fatty Acids in a single gram of fat.
Across the grain The cross-section that is the result of cutting a tree trunk perpendicular to its length. (As opposed to "with the grain").
Active behavior Applies to goods that have an active influence on other goods and their environment.
Actual carrier A third party who performs the carriage completely or partly.
Additives Substances added to other substances in order to modify their properties in a particular manner or to improve processing.
Adsorption The uptake of gases, vapor or dissolved substances (this is limited to the surface of solid objects).
Adsorption delay Delayed take up of water vapor by the cargo. In the Container Handbook, this refers exclusively to water vapor and describes the fact that during the day the water vapor is given off by the cargo to the air in the container (desorption) faster than the cooling of the container air is introduces water vapor to the cargo (adsorption). The water vapor condenses on the walls of the container thus leading to damage.
Adsorption isotherms As used in the Container Handbook: Graphical representation of the uptake of water vapor by a substance at a specified temperature. For product information purposes, the sorption isotherms are usually taken for a temperature of 20˚C.
Aerobe (Greek: aer - air) Microorganisms that require atmospheric oxygen.
Aerobic respiration (Greek: aer - air) Metabolic process of goods of vegetable origin, during which glucose and atmospheric oxygen are consumed by respiration processes to form carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat.
Aflatoxins Short form of Aspergillus - flavus - toxin. A mycotoxin (mold toxin) that is produced by the fungus Aspergillus - flavus among others.
A-frame Frame shaped like the letter "A" used to transport sheet loads, similar to the type of frame used when transporting panes of glass.
Agglomeration Lump formation.
Airbag Airbags can be positioned in the gaps between the cargo in order to achieve a tight fit during loading.
Air container Container conforming to standards laid down for air transportation
Aircraft Passenger aircraft shall mean an aircraft that carries any person other than a crew member, a carrier’s employee in an official capacity, an authorized representative of an appropriate national authority, or a person accompanying a consignment or other cargo.
Aircraft Cargo Aircraft shall mean any aircraft, other than a passenger aircraft, that is carrying goods or property.
Allelopathy (Greek: allelon - mutual; pathe - influence) The mutual influence of goods of vegetable origin when stored together, caused as a result of gaseous metabolic products, for example, ethylene of carbon dioxide.
American Rust Standards Used to classify corrosion damage. The American Rust Standard is recognized worldwide and widely used. It is often used in reports produced by surveyors.
Amorphous Without shape, without a fixed form.
Anaerobe (Greek: an - without, and aer - air) A microorganism that survives without atmospheric oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration (Greek: an - without, and aer - air) Occurs with goods of vegetable origin if the permitted carbon dioxide content is exceeded.
Animal diseases Animal diseases are diseases which are caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa or fungi and may be transmitted to animals and humans.
Animal goods Goods of animal origin.
Anthrax Notifiable febrile disease caused by the anthrax bacillus.
Anthropogenic influence Influence caused by human activity.
Apparent density Density of lumber including hollow space.
Approval Multilateral approval shall mean approval by the relevant competent authority of the country of origin of the design or shipment, as applicable, and also, where the consignment is to be transported through or into any other country, approval by the competent authority of that country.
Unilateral approval shall mean an approval of a design that is required to be given by the competent authority of the country of origin of the design only.
Arrhenius equation An equation describing the dependency of reaction speed on temperature. A simplified rule of thumb for transportation purposes is that when the temperature is lowered by 10˚C, degradation processes are reduced to between half and a third, i.e. the storage life can be doubled or even trebled by lowering the temperature by 10˚C.
Articulated trailer A motor vehicle coupled to a semi-trailer.
Articulated train / double train An articulated train is a combination of an articulated truck and one or more trailers, i.e. truck tractor plus semitrailer plus trailer. German road traffic licensing regulations (StVZO) forbids combinations of this type. Section 32a stated explicitly that no trailers are to be towed behind articulated trucks.
Articulated truck An articulated truck is a combination of a truck tractor and a semitrailer.
Articulated vehicle means any motor vehicle with a trailer having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer is superimposed upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the mass of the trailer and its load is borne by the motor vehicle. Such a trailer shall be called a semi trailer.
Athwartships stowage Load stowed across the beam of the container of ship (as opposed to fore and aft stowage). In the context of load securing, it is of utmost importance whether a container is stowed athwartships or fore and aft on a ship. In the case of athwartships stowage, the greatest acceleration forces act on the actual container longitudinally rather than transversely. Load securing measures must then be taken with this in mind.
ATP agreement Agreement of the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be used for such Carriage (Agreement on the Transport of Perishables); UN agreement for the cross-border transportation of foodstuffs.
Autolysis (Greek: autos - self; lucin - separation) Self-digestion.
Autoxidation Oxidation caused atmospheric oxygen and taking place at normal temperatures.


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Barge a non-seagoing watercraft used on inland or protected coastal waters:
Basket wagon A rail wagon with a demountable subframe, fitted with devices for vertical handling, to allow the loading and unloading of semi-trailers or road vehicles.
Baud Unit of speed for data transfer; 1 baud = 1 bit/s.
Bay A row of containers running from one side of the ship to the other. To be distinguished from a hold.
Bay plan Plan for the stowage of containers, in which each bay on a vessel is represented in a cross-sectional plan of the ship from bow to stern. A bay plan shows all possible positions for stowage on the vessel.
Bay-row-tier system Numbering system for the arrangement of containers on a vessel. In this numbering system, the bay is specified first, then the container row, which runs the length of the ship, and finally the tier (vertical layer).
Bay-tier-row system Numbering system for the arrangement of containers on a vessel. In this numbering system, the bay is specified first, then the tier (vertical layer) and finally the container row, which runs the length of the ship.
Beveling If a board of lumber beam is used diagonally for load securing purposes in a container, the ends must be beveled to ensure a tight fit into the container, thus allowing forces to be transferred to the container.
Big Bag A removable internal liner, strong enough to be lifted and to carry bulk cargoes of different types.
Bilge sump Sump at the lowest point of the hold, where water can collect and be pumped off.
Billets Semi-finished products (steel products) with a square of rectangular cross-section, edge lengths of 50 to 125 mm, rounded edges and a minimum length of approximately 1000 mm. This are the used to produce for bars, wire rod and special profiles or for forged or drop-forged items.
Bill of lading, bill of lading number Consignment note issued by the consignor as part of ocean-going and inland transportation processes which regulates the legal relationships between the loader, the consignor and the receiver of the goods that are being transported.

This note may be confirmation from the consignor that the goods have been received for shipping (Received for Shipment B/L) or a confirmation that the goods have been put on board (On Board B/L, Shipped on Board B/L). This document also covers the duty of the consignor to deliver the goods to their port or destination and to hand the goods over to the legitimate owner of the bill of lading in return for the bill of lading.

Bimodal semi-trailer (rail – road) A road semi-trailer that can be converted into a rail wagon by the addition of rail bogies.
Biotic activity Refers to activities evident in products of vegetable or animal origin that during transportation exert an influence on the products themselves and/or on other animal or vegetable products. Biotic activity covers biochemical, microbial and other decomposition processes (e.g. allelopathy).
Bird's mouth A bird's mouth is formed when a very flat V-shape is cut into the end of a piece of wood.
Bitter ends The ends of rope after a change of direction of any kind. The ends are usually joined by means of a knot, wire cable clamps, turnbuckles, shackles etc.
Black rot Rot attack on fruit. Black rot can always occur if damage to the fruit extends as far as the flesh. This is then easily transferred from an infected piece of fruit to the other fruits. Black rot is a frequent type of chilling damage occurring in pineapples.
Block stowage A method of loading: in block stowage, the goods are stowed as a single block, without leaving space of the flow of air. Thus, air can only pass around the block itself.
Block train a number of permanently coupled railway wagons, normally running directly between two selected terminals or entities without shunting.
Blowing Bulging observed on the lids and bases of cans caused by the formation of gas after the sterilization process and ultimitely leading and bursting. Such bulging can be caused by high temperatures (see heat-induced blowing) or low temperatures (see cold-induced) erfolgen.
Blue discoloration Blue discoloration of wood caused by blue stain fungi.
Blued steel scrap A normal steel scrap can be refined by heat treatment (heating, quenching, tempering). It undergoes a structural change which gives it optimal properties in terms of hardness and elasticity. Heat treatment leaves an oxide layer on the surface of the steel which is a bleuish color (steel blue), hence the name.
Botulism Dangerous food poisoning caused by the bacterium clostridium botulinum occuring for instance in insufficiently sterilized preserved meat of vegetables.
Box Another (less formal) name for a shipping container. This is how they are often referred to in the industry.
Box container Alternative colloquial term for the standard ISO container.
Bracing/bracing beams Items used to secure general cargo loads. Bracing is usually made from squared lumber beams that are fitted between the load and the load-bearing sections of the container in order to take up the horizontal and vertical forces acting on the load. The bracing is subject to compressive stress.
Break-bulk loose cargo, such as cartons, stowed directly in the ship's hold as opposed to containerized or bulk cargo. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown.
Brine circuit Intermediate circuit of a cooling system that uses a saline solution (brine) as a coolant to reduce the freezing point. This method is often used to reduce the amount of chemical-based coolant used in the cooling system.
Brittle fracture Caused by mechanical stress placed on plastic films at freezing temperatures.
B-Train two trailers linked together by a fifth wheel, and are up to 26 m (85 ft) long. The fifth wheel coupling is located at the rear of the lead, or first trailer and is mounted on a "tail" section commonly located immediately above the lead trailer axles.
Buckling Drying and consequential bulging of the exterior of paper packages on pallets.
Buffer stow A so-called "buffer" is required when transporting a heavy load with a high mass and small surfaces for distributing the forces acting upon the object. Lumber beams are usually used for this purpose. For certain types of load, the effort involved in this load securing method can be reduced by using part of the load as a buffer. Round bars are a good example, as they are 1) capable of bearing high loads, and 2) suffer no damage as a result of being used as a buffer. For this method, a round bar is first loaded across the end wall of the container. This then acts as a buffer and, in the event of jolts during transport, cushions or distributes the forces evenly across the wall.

Since the buffer is created by the way the cargo is loaded, this method is referred to as "buffer stow".

Bulk Cargo commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities. These cargos are usually dropped or poured as a liquid or solid, into a bulk carrier's hold. Examples of bulk cargo are grain, seed, and coal and iron ore.
Bulk cargoes cargoes which are intended to be transported without any intermediate form of containment in bulk packagings or portable tanks


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CA, CA atmosphere CA = Controlled Atmosphere: For example, an artificial reduction of the level of oxygen and increase in the level of carbon dioxide to extend the lifetime of goods.
CA container Container with controlled atmosphere.
Cakes Cuboid semi-finished copper product that is used to make other semi-finished or finished products.
Caking Hardening of bulk cargo caused by a release of water vapor; Causes the formation of lumps if moisture is present in salts or sugars.
Candying Hardening caused by an excessively dry atmosphere, e.g. on dried fruits.
Capacitive network Data network with capacitive coupling to the power network for remote monitoring of refrigerated.
Capillary condensation Condensation of vapors in the fine pores of adsorbtion media.
Cargo any goods, wares, merchandise and articles of any kind which are intended to be transported.
Cargo sweat Condensation on the surface of the cargo: Condensation can form on the cargo as a result of climatic conditions. Cargo sweat can always occur when the temperature of the cargo is lower than or equal to the dew point. It can also occur during transportation from temperature latitudes, e.g. from northern hemisphere winter to the tropics.
Cargo temperature The temperature of the cargo within the container. Can vary according to place and time (e.g. during a cooling or warming process).
Cargo transport unit (CTU) a freight container, swap-body, vehicle, railway wagon or any other similar unit;
Carrier Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
Catalysis (Greek: katalysis - dissolution, decomposition) Change, usually the acceleration of a chemical reaction by means of substances (catalysts) which appear to remain unchanged during the reaction process.
CBU Capacitive Bridge Unit; component of a remote refrigerated container monitoring system where data is transferred via the power cable. A CBU is used to capacitively modulate the data signal (using a capator) over the power cable.
Cell lumen Pores in the wood structure.
Centre of Gravity (Abbr. CG) The point in or near a body at which the gravitational potential energy of the body is equal to that of a single particle of the same mass located at that point and through which the resultant of the gravitational forces on the component particles of the body acts.
CFC Chloro Fluoro Carbons. CFCs are artificially produced gases or liquids. They are used as coolants, propellants or detergents. CFCs can remain in the atmosphere for decades before being broken down. They are a source of chlorine radicals, which react with ozone and contribute significantly toward the destruction of the ozone layer. CFCs are now banned in Switzerland and a number of other countries.
Chafe Become damaged as a result of abrasion.
Chilled bananas Bananas are chilled when the temperature has dropped down below the acceptable limit. This process means that the fruit suffers irreparable metabolic damage which renders it incapable of ripening.
Chilled meat Fresh meat is transported chilled.
Chilled operation / chilled mode Operating mode of a refrigerated container. During chilled operation the circulated fans run at maximum rpm and the intake air temperature is regulated constantly.
Chill haze Change in consistency due to the deposition if dissolved components as a result of the cooling of aqueous solutions.
Chilling Chill damage is caused when the storage temperature goods of vegetable origin drops below the specified limits. This process means that fruit suffers irreparable metabolic damage which renders it incapable of ripening.
Chilling damage Occurs when the load is subject to temperatures below the acceptable limits. This process means that fruit suffers irreparable metabolic damage which renders it incapable of ripening.
Chipping This is a mechanical defect of enamel goods.
Circulation bypass (Abbr. CG) Occurs when air in a space does not circulate throughout the entire space, but rather seeks the path of least resistance in parts of the space.
Chassis See skeletal trailer.
CKD (Completely Knocked Down cars). For the purposes of customs, cars are not transported fully assembled, or are partially dismantled after being assembled. Final assembly of the vehicles is subsequently carried out once they reach their destination. CKD transportation makes it possible to avoid high import duties (100% and more).
Climacteric (Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time). Ready to eat or ripe for consumption.
Climacteric fruits (from the Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time). For bananas the "climacteric" is the point at which the fruits turn from green to yellow. Starch breaks down to form sugar. Fruits that reach the climacteric are ready-to-eat or ripe for consumption.
Climacteric rise (from the Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time). The final increase in carbon dioxide excretion which marks the beginning of maturation of a fruit. After the climactic rise, fruits are ready to eat.
Clip-on units Refrigeration units used to cool porthole containers on deck, in port or during road/rail transportation.
Close coupled trailer A close-coupled trailer is fitted with a rigid tow bar which projects from its front and hooks onto a hook on the tractor. It does not pivot as a full / drawbar trailer does.
Coagulation (Latin: coagulare - to congeal). Clotting of a colloid solution, for example, protoplasma.
Coefficient of expansion, thermal, cubic Increase in volume of a material caused by an increased in temperature.
Coefficient of sliding friction Dimensionless factor indicated by the Greek letter μ. This factor is used to determine the force required to overcome the friction which is produced by a specific material combination constantly siding under the influence of a pulling force. The coefficient of sliding friction is important in load securing, since the sliding friction of a load with a specific material combination (load/loading area) must be overcome before the load slides. The greater the friction, the less effort is required in securing the load.
Cohesive resistance Resistance of an object against slipping on a surface (a function of cohesion and friction).
Coil box container Special container for transporting coils. They handle greater line loads and are equipped with coil wells and special load securing features.
Coil container Are built like flats or flatracks, i.e. they consist of a container floor and flat or frame-like end walls. The container floor has cargo troughs for accommodating coils/ rolls of steel sheet.
Coils Products such as steel sheets, wide strip, steel piping or wire which are coiled into rolls. Coils weighing up to 35 t are transported.
Cold chain Unbroken chain from manufacture through to the consumer in which the prescribed cooling temperature is constantly maintained.
Cold induced blowing Bulging on cans caused by the canned product increasing in volume when the temperature fails below freezing point.
Cold-rolled strips Flat cold-rolled products in widths of up to 650 mm and thicknesses of 0.1 - 6 mm. Can be made from any type of steel and is available with any required surface treatment. Cold-rolled strips are available in the form of rings or strips (bars). The advantage of cold-rolled strips and sheets over hot-rolled and cole re-rolled sheets is the greater degree of accuracy of dimensions.
Collapsible flat rack container Flat with end walls that can be folded in when empty. The end walls are unlocked and folded down onto the loading area. In this state, the flats can be stacked. Three of the "folded" flats take up about the same space as a standard container.
Collo PI, colli, internationally used word meaning an item of freight (crate, box, bale bag, bundle, etc.)
Combined transport Intermodal transport where the major part of the European journey is by rail, inland waterways or sea and any initial and/or final legs carried out by road are as short as possible.
Compatibility characteristics Interrelationships between the transport properties of products in relation to each other and in relation to the environment.
Competent authority Competent authority shall mean any body or authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with these Regulations.
Compliance assurance Compliance assurance shall mean a systematic programme of measures applied by a competent authority that is aimed at ensuring that the provisions of these Regulations are met in practice.
Conair container Refrigerated containers without their own refrigeration unit. Conair refrigerated containers, also called insulated or porthole containers, do not have their own refrigeration unit. They are thus reliant on an external supply of cold air. This is achieved by refrigeration units of various types, permanently installed on the ship, permanently installed in the terminal or clip-on units for individual containers. Porthole containers are thermally insulated and have two sealable openings on the end walls (the portholes) through which cold air can be blown into the container and warm air can be extracted. The cold air is forced through the lower opening into the container, then distributed throughout the load via the T-bar floor, and subsequently flows through the load to the top of the container and is extracted through the upper opening.
Confinement system Confinement system shall mean the assembly of fissile material and packaging components specified by the designer and agreed to by the competent authority as intended to preserve criticality safety.
Consignee Consignee shall mean any person, organization or government that is entitled to take delivery of a consignment.
Consignment Freight sent under a single contract of carriage
Consignor A person or company who puts goods in the care of others (forwarding agent/freight forwarder, carrier/transport operator) to be delivered to a consignee
Consolidated packages Group of cargo items fastened together with straps or similar devices.
Consolidation See groupage
Contact insecticide Contact poison that kills pests on contact.
Contact poison Poison that kills pests on contact.
Container Generic term for a box to carry freight, strong enough for repeated use, usually stackable and fitted with devices for transfer between modes.
Container bolster A container floor without sides or end walls generally used for Ro/Ro operations.
Container dry Water content of goods which would not negatively impact the quality of the goods being transported in the container. For any given load, this water content will be dependent on the duration of the journey and the route and may vary over different routes.
Containerizable Goods (and their packaging) must have the physical properties which ensure that they will survive transport in a container without damage as a result of climatic, mechanical and biotic conditions (depending on the route and duration of transport). These properties include the humidity, temperature and ventilation requirements of the load.
Container packing certificate Certificate indicating correct loading of a dangerous goods container and the observance of the regulations set out in the IMDG Code (International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code). The container packing certificate is issued by the person responsible for packing the container.
Container section A packed section of a container.
Container sweat Condensation which forms on the surfaces of the container.
Container template Generally a moveable frame that maps the size and shape of the inside of a container. If the exact dimensions of a cargo or its packing are unknown, the 'template' can be pushed over the load in order to make sure that the correct size of container has been selected.
Container Terminal a docking, unloading and loading area within a port designed to suit the sizes and needs of container ships.
Containment system Containment system shall mean the assembly of components of the packaging specified by the designer as intended to retain the radioactive material during transport.
Contamination Contamination shall mean the presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters.
Contraction (Latin: contrahere - shrink) Reduction in volume.
Non-fixed contamination shall mean contamination that can be removed from a surface during routine conditions of transport.
Fixed contamination shall mean contamination other than non-fixed contamination.
Conveyance Conveyance shall mean:
For transport by road or rail: any vehicle;
For transport by road or rail: any vehicle;
For transport by water: any vessel, or any hold, compartment, or defined deck area of a vessel;
For transport by air: any aircraft.
Cooked bananas If upper temperature limits are exceeded, the bananas can ripen so quickly that they burst. This is usually referred to as "cooked" bananas.
Corner castings Corner fittings located at all eight corners of the container. They are used to handle the container. Lifting gear, such as container gantries and cranes, is attached to the corner castings of the containers in order to lift them. The corner castings are used in conjunction with twist locks to secure containers when traveling on road vehicles or stack and fasten them securely to the deck of ocean-going vessel. The twist locks are placed in the corner castings and engage with the corner castings (on the floor) of the next container.
Corner fitting Fixed points usually located at the top and bottom corners of a container into which twistlocks or other devices engage to enable the container to be lifted, stacked, secured.
Corner posts Corner posts of a container. These connect the upper corner casting of a container to the lower one and form one of the most stable parts of the container.
Corrosion (Latin: corrodere) Destruction of materials. When applied to metals this is an electrochemical process that can, in particular, be promoted by a good electrolyte (sea water).
Corrugated board carton Carton made of corrugated board.
Corrugations Metal sheets are deliberately corrugated in order to increase their stability. Standard containers, insofar as they are made of steel sheet are usually manufactured using sheet sheets with trapezoidal corrugations. Corrugations can also be used when making steel drums, again for the purposes of stabilization.
Cradle A cradle is a frame that is used to secure loads with a tendency to roll, such as boats or cylindrical goods (boilers, large-diameter pipes, etc.). The upper side of the cradle is shaped to fit the product it is designed to carry.
Crane Conventional lifting crane where the load is suspended by cable via a jib.
Crate A wooden receptacle formed like a case or box, with the difference that the external walls and the lid are not fully closed.
Crate restraint shoe Steel bracket specially made to suit a specific crate, where the upper side of the shoe takes the crate and the underside of the shoe is designed to fit tightly to the transport medium or container.
Crispness Property of a product (e.g. bakery products).
Criticality safety index Criticality safety index (CSI) assigned to a package, overpack or freight container containing fissile material shall mean a number that is used to provide control over the accumulation of packages, overpacks or freight containers containing fissile material.
Critical water content Water content of cargo at which a change in quality is expected.
Cryptoclimate (Greek: kryptos - concealed, hidden) Microclimate in a closed space such as a container.
CTU / CTU guidelines Cargo Transport Unit: Guidelines for the packing of loads except bulk goods either in or on CTUs for transport by means of any method of land-based or water-based transportation.


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daN deca Newton.
Dangerous goods packaged dangerous, hazardous or harmful substances, materials or articles, including environmentally hazardous substances (marine pollutants) and wastes, covered by the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code; the term dangerous cargoes includes any empty uncleaned packagings;
Data logger Device used for automatic (and continuous) recording of data. The data can then be read out at a later time, for instance, using a laptop.
Dead air zone Area in a cargo stack with insufficient ventilation.
Deep Sea (service) maritime route between two or more major hub ports. Similar to liner service
Defined deck area Defined deck area shall mean the area of the weather deck of a vessel, or of a vehicle deck of a roll-on/roll-off ship or ferry, that is allocated for the stowage of radioactive material.
Degree of rusting Assessment of the visible amount of rusting, i.e. the degree of damage to iron and steel cargoes as a result of corrosion. The American Rust Standard is frequently used in international trade to describe the degree of rusting.
Design Design shall mean the description of special form radioactive material, low dispersible radioactive material, package or packaging that enables such an item to be fully identified. The description may include specifications, engineering drawings, reports demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements, and other relevant documentation.
Deodorization (Latin: odor - odor; de -negation = to render odorless) Elimination of odors.
Dermatitis (Latin: derma - skin; - itis - suffix denoting, inflammation) Inflammation of the skin.
Desiccant Substance for absorbing moisture.
Desorption Release of the water vapor from a substance.
Desorption isotherm Graphical representation of the release of water vapor from a substance in relation to its water content at a specified temperature. For product information purposes, the isotherms are usually taken for a temperature of 20°C.
Dew point temperature The temperature at which water vapor in the air reaches saturation point and condenses ("dew" appears).
Diffusion law (Latin: diffundere - to pour out, spread) Water vapor always flows from the higher to the lower partial pressure.
Dilattation, thermal (Latin: dilatare - to extend)Increase in the volume of a substance as a result of increased temperature.
Display packaging Packaging designed for a specific product (e.g. pears) which are also suitable for presentation at the point of sale.
Door-to-door Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.
Dormancy temperature The temperatures of cargo of vegetable origin are regulated in order to prevent loss of quality.
Dose (French: dose - appropriate measure) Quantity of a toxic substance in the body.
Double stacked wagon A rail wagon designed for the transport of containers stacked on top of each other
Dressed lumber Wood from which the sapwood has been removed.
Drip loss Loss of juice as the result of recrystallization of frozen meat. If the meat is frozen rapidly at low temperatures (e.g. -27°C), small ice crystals are produced. If the meat rises to a higher temperature (e.g. -10°C), the ice crystals grow larger, i.e. they recrystallize. As of a certain size, they can rupture the cell walls of the meat. These "perforated" cell walls lose substantially more cell juices than cell walls which are not damaged. The result is a loss of juice, also known as "drip loss".
Driving wedges See tapered blocks.
Drop Frame Trailer a form of intermodal transportation for portable bulk liquid containers or ISO tank containers. They are characteristically longer and have lower deck height ideal for transporting constantly shifting payloads.
Dry bulk Bulk cargo.
Dry port Inland terminal which is directly linked to a maritime port.
Dunnage Dunnage is used to protect the contents of the container, for instance against sweat. A distinction is drawn between top dunnage side dunnage and floor dunnage. Paper (see paper dunnage), wood, plastic or many other materials can be used as dunnage.
Dunnage material Materials which are not fastened firmly to the means of transport or transport container and are used to protect the goods from sweat, dirt, or mechanical stress, for instance, or as an aid in stowage (interlayer dunnage). Depending on its application, it is referred to as floor dunnage, interlayer dunnage, lateral dunnage or top dunnage.


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Eating ripeness Ready-to-eat or ripe for consumption (climacteric). Ideal degree of ripeness for consumption.
EN standard European standards.
Enzymes (Greek: enzymos - fermented) These are catalytic systems which break down nutrients.
Equilibrium moisture content The water content of the goods is in equilibrium with the quantity of water vapor in the ambient air (relative humidity).
Ergot Resting body (sclerotium)of the ergot fungus. Meal contaminated by ergot causes poisoning; ergot alkaloids produce uterine contractions.
Essential oil Constituent part of spices that have a strong seasoning action and odor.
EUROSAL service Container line running between the west coast of South America, the Caribbean and Europe. Members of the EUROSAL service include Hapag-Lloyd, Hamburg-Süd and CSAV.
Eutectic point E.P.) Temperature (approx. -62°C) at which all the water in the cells of the product is completely frozen, preventing microbial biotic activity and therefore preventing any loss of quality to the product. The product has an infinite storage life. Water and dissolved substances crystallize out together.
Exclusive use Exclusive use shall mean the sole use, by a single consignor, of a conveyance or of a large freight container, in respect of which all initial, intermediate and final loading and unloading and shipment are carried out in accordance with the directions of the consignor or consignee, where so required by these Regulations.


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Fat-cleaving enzymes Lipases.
FCL container "Full Container Load": Container packed by the shipper for door-to-door delivery without any transhipment operations.
Feeder service Short sea shipping service which connects at least two ports in order for the freight (generally containers) to be consolidated or redistributed to or from a deep-sea service in one of these ports.
Feeder Vessel A short–sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports.
Ferment (Latin: fermentum-yeast, fermentation) See also Enzyme: Certain organic substances induce decomposition, particularly fermentation, in other organic substances. The term "enzyme" has generally replaced the term "ferment".
Fermentation Biochemical process in which energy is released from carbohydrates by enzymes.
FEU 'Forty-foot Equivalent Unit'. This is a container that is the same height and width as a TEU but twice the length. As a result, it has twice the capacity.
Fiber drum Cylindrical transport container (similar to a large can or a barrel). It is made of wound kraft paper and has a sheet steel base and lid. It is generally sealed by means of closing rings and a locking lever.
Field Bus Part of a network solution that is based on a four-tier model (actuator-sensor level, field level, cell-level, management-level. The "field-level" will generally comprise spatially separated machine lines and local machines linked to each other or to the superordinated level.
Fissile nuclides and fissile material Fissile nuclides shall mean uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239 and plutonium-241. Fissile material shall mean a material containing any of the fissile nuclides in quantities exceeding a total of 0.25 g per package or per consignment if shipped unpackaged. Excluded from the definition of fissile material is any combination of the following:
Natural uranium or depleted uranium that is unirradiated;
Natural uranium or depleted uranium that has been irradiated in thermal reactors only.
These exclusions are only valid if there is no other material with fissile nuclides in the package.
Fit-for-purpose packaging Packaging that is able to withstand any stresses that can be expected during the voyage and that will afford appropriate protection to the products. The stresses could vary significantly depending on the method of transport (road, rail. air, sea, combined methods of transport, repeated transshipment, etc.
Flaking Flaking is a common fault during the production of enamel goods. In a general sense, it refers to the separation of areas of the surface due to strain and mechanical stress.
Flange A ring welded onto the end of a pipe. It is used with its counterpart to join pipes. The rings are provided with drilled holes through which the pipes can be bolted together.
Flap Collapsible rail/ramp for moving loads into the belly of the ship.
Flatrack (flat) Container without side walls and roof, with fixed or collapsible end walls.
Flexural strength The ability of a material or a construction to withstand bending.
Flowability Ability of crystalline, pulverulent or granular goods to flow freely.
Flow moisture point (FMP) Point at which the goods change from solid to liquid state.
Foodtrays Preformatted small packages which are also used for sales presentations.
Fore and aft stowage Load stowed along the length of the container or the ship. Contrast athwartships stowage. In the context of load securing, it is of utmost importance whether a container is stowed fore and aft or athwartships on a ship. In the case of athwartships stowage, the greatest acceleration forces act on the actual container longitudinally rather than transversely. Load securing measures must then be taken with this in mind.
Forwarding agent See Freight forwarder
Freeport Zone where goods can be manufactured and/or stored without payment of their relevant duties and taxes.
Freezer burn Drying out of frozen goods.
Freezer container This is a special type of freezer container which can maintain the temperature of the cargo at approximately -65°C. At approximately -62°C, the "eutectic point" is reached, i.e. as of this temperature, all the water in a product is completely frozen. No microbial activity can occur when there is no free water, and therefore the product does not suffer any further loss of quality. At these temperatures, the product has an infinite storage life.
Freezing chain Unbroken chain from manufacture through to the consumer in which the prescribed freezing temperature is constantly maintained.
Freight container an article of transport equipment that is of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; it is designed to transport a number of receptacles, packages, unit loads or overpacks together from the packing point to its final destination by road, rail, inland waterway and/or sea without intermediate separate handling of each package, unit load or overpack;
Freight container - small, large 2 A small freight container shall mean a freight container that has an internal volume of not more than 3 m3 . A large freight container shall mean a freight container that has an internal volume of more than 3 m3 .
Freight forwarder Intermediary who arranges for the carriage of goods and/or associated services on behalf of a shipper.
Freight village See Logistics centre
Friction-enhancing mat Mat made of material which hinders slipping.
Fruit respiration Exchange of gases between fruits and the ambient air. Apples, for instance, constantly take in oxygen when they respire and release approximately the same quantity of carbon dioxide. If you change the concentration of the gases which are involved in respiratory metabolism, you can permanently affect the intensity of the fruit respiration. This will delay the maturity and degradation processes and thus increase the duration of storage.
Full Trailer A full-trailer is a term for a trailer supported by front and rear axles and pulled by a drawbar. In Europe this is known as an A-Frame drawbar trailer. The full trailer may comprise of a semi trailer and a detachable dolly.
Fumigant A gas that acts as a respiratory poison against pests.
Fumigated container A closed cargo transport unit containing goods or materials that either are or have been fumigated within the unit. The fumigant gases used are either poisonous or asphyxiant. The gases are usually evolved from solid or liquid preparations distributed within the unit.
Fungal film Film of fungal growth, e.g. on microscope lenses.
Fungal hyphae Fungal filaments.
Fungicide (Latin: fungus - fungus, cide - inhibiting) A means used to combat mould.


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Gantry crane An overhead crane comprising a horizontal gantry mounted on legs which are either fixed, run in fixed tracks or on rubber tyres with relatively limited manoeuvre. The load can be moved horizontally, vertically and sideways
General cargo Cargo, consisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletized.
General set (gen-set) A generator which can be attached to a container or truck chassis and which generates power for supplying electricity to a refrigerated container.
GGVSee Gefahrgutverordnung-See. Regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the transportation of dangerous goods by sea-going vessels.
Grating Floor of a refrigerated hold / container which is designed so that air can flow along the floor and into the space where the floor is not covered by a load. T-bar gratings comprising aluminium tee profiles are used in refrigerated containers. Hold gratings (braced boards with holes) are normally used on refrigerated cargo ships.
Grey mould rot Storage disease frequently occurring in carrots and tomatoes.
Ground conveyor General term for conveying equipment which runs on wheels along the ground, can be freely steered and is used to convey, pull or push loads, such as forklift trucks or side loaders.
Groupage The grouping together of several consignments into a full load


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Half-height open-top container A half-height container with no roof, which is particularly suitable for heavy and compact cargo. The container can be loaded through the open top using a crane. Due to the reduced height of this container, the rates on container ships can sometimes be more favorable.
Handling includes the operation of loading or unloading/discharging of a ship, railway wagon, vehicle or other means of transport.
Handling symbol Handling symbols are an essential part of the marking of packages and ensure greater care is taken during cargo handling.
Hardboard This refers to hardboards, generally around 2-3 cm. thick, that are used for load securing and for interlayer dunnage or top dunnage. Since these hardboards only has minimal material strength and, in addition, one side of the board is very smooth, they are not suitable for use as dunnage and cannot be reccommended. The exception is use as lateral load distribution or to protected neighboring cargo from low physical loads, as described under section
Hard-top open-top container Container that opens at the top and can be closed with a solid roof (steel sheet). Like all containers that open at the top, this is suitable for crane loading.
Heat capacity Physical property of a material indicating its ability to retain heat; measured in kJ/(kg K); typical values: 4.182kJ/(kg˚C) for water, 2.1 kJ/(kg˚C) for ice, 1.6 kJ/(kg˚C) for many frozen foodstuffs.
Heat expansion rupture Damage to a product or its packaging caused by an increase in volume when the temperature rises above a critical point.
Heat-induced blowing Bulging on cans caused by dilation (expansion) of the canned product.
Heat transition coefficient Also known as the k-value; physical value that specifies the degree of insulation provided by a wall or similar. For containers, heat transition takes account of the heat transfer form the air inside the container to the wall, the heat transmitted by the wall, and the heat transferred to the air outside the container; unit of measurement: W/m2K); Typical value for refrigerated containers: 0.3 W/m2K), 0.4 W/m2K) (old)
Heavy-lift steel cornerpieces These are angled steel plates attached to the bottom and/or top of cargo items to prevent damage by slinging equipment.
Heavy plate Hot-rolled thick steel sheets (sometimes several cm), generally further processed or used in the rawsteel industry (shipbuilding).
Heeling Heel, heel angle: Temporary inclination of a ship to one side along its fore-and-aft axis brought about by external forces working on the ship. Heeling can be caused by a rough seas, winds of the rudder position. The heel angle describes the inclination of the ship. The heel angle is the deviation from the perpendicular.
High cube container Container of standard ISO length and width but with a height of 9' 6" (2.9 m).
Highly perishable foodstuffs Foodstuffs that are at risk of rapid quality degredation.
Hoist operation Operation with lifting gear (cranes etc.)
Hold meteorology study group The objective of the container meteorology study group at the Warnemünde-Wustrow University of Seafaring, established by Professor Ulrich Scharnow in 1070, who has headed the group since that time, was to investigate the complex thermodynamic processes occurring in containers. The investigations were carried out on two standard containers, each of which was equipped with an air lock to prevent disturbing the cryptoclimate when monitoring and making measurements and a weather station. The results of the investigations were able to provide information to both container manufacturers and consignors, particularly to consignors of hygroscopic goods, about the potential for climatological conditions, particularly in ambient conditions exposed to radiation.
Homeothermic pests (Greek: homoios - identical; thermos - heat). Warm-blooded pests.
Hot rolled (wide) strip Hot rolled steel product with a rectangular cross-section of at least 600 mm in width. It is immediately wound into coils after rolling with the edges aligned as closely as possible (like a watch spring). It is subsequently used to produce thin steel sheet and heavy plate as well as cold rolled strip/cold rolled wide strip.
HPE standards Packaging guidelines for boxes, crates, wooden supports, etc.

HPE is the abbreviation for the: Bundesverband Holzpackmittel Paletten Exportverpackung e.V.(German Federal Association for Wooden Packaging, Export and Palets).

Humidity motor Circulation produced when the temperature gradient between cargo and the container wall is too steep. This increases the transport of humidity to the surfaces of the container.
Hydrolytic class The degree of water resistance for glass products.
Hydrolytic/enzymatic fat cleavage (Greek: hydro - water; lysis - solution; enzymos - fermented). Fat cleavage due to moisture and fat-cleaving enzymes (lipases).
Hydrometer Measuring equipment used to determine the density of liquids, also areometer.
Hygrophilic microorganisms (Greek: hygros - moist, philos - love). Microorganisms that require a relative humidity of > 90%.
Hygroscopicity (Greek: hygros - moist). A property of products that react to the air humidity.
Hub Central point for the collection, sorting, transhipment and distribution of goods for a particular area.
Hub port a port that is the destination of liner service where containers are transhipped onto feeder services for maritime transport onto small container ports.


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Intermediate bulk container Intermediate bulk container (IBC) shall mean a portable packaging that:
Has a capacity of not more than 3 m3;
Is designed for mechanical handling;
Is resistant to the stresses produced in handling and transport, as determined by tests.
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission.
Imago (plural: imagoes) Fully developed insects.
IMDG Code International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Regulations concerning the international transport of dangerous goods by sea.
Infection (Latin : inficere - to poison) Invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms causing inflammation.
Ingot Ingots are blocks of metal which are cast into a particular shape. They can vary greatly from metal to metal and from production site to production site. Aluminum, lead, zinc and tin are very often transported in this form.
In-package Drying out that occurs within the package.
Insecticide Pesticide designed specifically to combat insects.
Intake air temperature Temperature of the air as it leaves the cooling mechanism and is blown into the refrigerated hold / container. the intake air temperature is regulated during shilled operation.
Integral refrigerated container Insulated refrigerated container with an integrated refrigeration unit. Requires a three-phase power supply for operation.
Integrated unit Refrigerated container with integrated refrigeration unit.
Interfacial problems Transfer of heat and water vapor at interface.
Intermodal refers to the movement of CTUs on all forms of surface transport modes (road, rail, short sea and liner service) without the need for adjustment or alteration to the CTU or transport mode.
Intermodal transport The movement of goods in one and the same loading unit or road vehicle, which uses successively two or more modes of transport without handling the goods themselves in changing modes.
Intermodal loading unit Containers, swap bodies and semi-trailers suitable for intermodal transport.
Intermodal transport unit (ITU) a container, swap body or trailer suitable for intermodal transport;
Intermodality a system of transport whereby two or more modes of transport are used to transport the same loading unit or truck in an integrated manner, without loading or unloading, in a door to door transport chain.
Internal breakdown Chilling damage in pomaceous fruit. If, for instance, apples are stored at too cold a temperature, they "freeze" and suffer irreparable metabolic damage. the flesh of he fruit usually becomes soft and brown from the core. Such damage generally cannot be detected externally.
Iodine value Measure of the degree of unsaturated hydrocarbons in oils and fats.
Isomerization (Greek: isos - same; meros - part)Intra-molecular restructuring. the atoms in the molecule are reorganized in such a way that the actual composition does not change. This usually had an effect on the chemical and physical properties.
ISO standard Standard compliant with the "International Organization for Standardization".


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Kraftliner Kraft paper (see below) made of bleached/unbleached kraft pulp and used to make the outer layers of corrugated board and millboard.
Kraft paper This is made of at least 90% fresh, usually unbleached, sulfate pulp (kraft pulp). It is characterized by high strength and resistance.


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Label Labels are, in accordance with the dangerous goods stipulations of the IMDG code, adhesive labels that indicate to all parties concerned what type of dangerous goods are being transported. They differ from placards in terms of size, although placards have the same purpose.

Labels with dimensions of 10 x 10 cm. are designed for use on each of the items to be transported. Placards of at least 25 x 25 cm. must be attached to the outside of the container or vehicle.

Land container Container complying with International Railway Union (UIC) specifications, for use in rail-road combined transport.
Lashing lash:

Attaching or fixing/securing a load to a means of transport/or securing a load inside a container in order to prevent it from sliding or falling. Lashing is a widely used international term.
The term can be modified to indicate the type of lashing that is meant (direct lashing, diagonal lashing, tie-down lashing). The lashing equipment may be prefabricated lashing belts, chains, wire rope, as well as ropes made of artificial or natural fibers, or a combination of such.

Lashing capacity The permissible lashing capacity (LC) is the maximum force that may be applied to a lashing. This lashing capacity can be found on a label that is attached to the lashing equipment.
For maritime transport, "MSL" is to be used in accordance with appendix 13 of the guideline entitled "Bekanntmachung von Änderungen von Richtlinien für die sachgerechte Stauung von Ladung bei der Beförderung mit Seeschiffen" ("Publication of amendments to guidelines for the correct stowage of cargoes for carriage in ocean-going ships") of 14 February 1996 (published in the German "Bundesanzeiger" newspaper, 7 May 1996).
Lashing crosspiece A construction similar in appearance to a girder, manufactured primarily from steel and offering attachment points for lashing equipment.
Lashing equipment Devices or aids for securing loads against slippage, tipping and falling. It may comprise chains, wires, ropes, straps or rods and is generally used in conjuction with a tensioning device (e.g. turnbuckle, twistlock or ratchet tensioner). Depending on the way in which the load is secured, it may be referred to as cylinder lashing, cross lashing, wire-rope lashing or round-turn lashing. Verb: to lash.
Lashing rod Metal rod for securing (lashing) containers on deck.
Lateral dunnage Covering the sides of the container with dunnage provides protection against dripping sweat.
Lateral tier Lateral layer of cargo. Generally used to stabilize the stow or to close off the face of the load.
Lattice Grid-like structure, mainly wooden, used to secure the load.
Lgjs container car Series of rail cars for container transportation. The letter j in the name indicates that the car is fitted with buffers.
Lift on – lift off (LO-LO) Loading and unloading of intermodal transport units (ITU, see 4.1) using lifting equipment.
Lift truck a truck equipped with devices such as arms, forks, clamps, hooks etc. to handle any kind of cargo, including cargo that is unitised, overpacked or packed in CTUs.
Lighter A lighter is an inland water vessel or barge usually without an engine that was originally used for reducing the draft of a ocean-going vessel by lightening the load thus allowing it to enter the port.
Limit of liability The maximum sum of money payable by a carrier to a shipper for any damage or loss to the cargo for which the carrier is liable under the contract of carriage. The amount of the limitation is determined by agreement or by law.
Line load Weight force which can be withstood by a container floor per running meter.
Liner bag Plastic fabric fixed inside a standard container with bulk cargo.
Liner service maritime route between two or more major hub ports
Lipases (Greek: lipos - fat, oil) Fat-cleaving enzymes.
Liquid bulk Liquid cargo.
Load limit line A red line in refrigerated containers that indicates the maximum stowage height of the load to allow sufficient air circulation below the roof.
Load-securing foam Foams which are used as fillers, generally made from PE or PU. They are used to fill gaps in the container, and thus to ensure tight fit and firm securing of the load.
Loading track Track on which ITUs are transhipped.
Loading Unit Container or swap body.
Locking coil Coils (rolls of steel sheet) are generally loaded athwartships with their winding axis fore and aft. They are stowed from the side walls inwards, so that one or two spaces are left in the center that are too small for a further coil. The locking coil(s) is (are) placed in this (these) space(s). The opening angle leads to significant lateral pressure. This pressure forces the other coils towards the ship's sides, thus stabilizing the stow / row of coils. Locking coils must not protrude down into the cantlines of the lower tier by more than one-third of the diameter of the locking coil, since if they protrude any further, the increased lateral pressure can lead to damage to the coils.
Logistic centre Geographical grouping of independent companies and bodies which are dealing with freight transport (for example, freight forwarders, shippers, transport operators, customs) and with accompanying services (for example, storage, maintenance and repair), including at least a terminal.
Logistics The process of designing and managing the supply chain in the wider sense

The chain can extend from the delivery of supplies for manufacturing, through the management of materials at the plant, delivery to warehouses and distribution centres, sorting, handling, packaging and final distribution to point of consumption.

LO-LO Lift on - lift off. Loading and unloading of ITU using lifting equipment
Low dispersible radioactive material Low dispersible radioactive material shall mean either a solid radioactive material or a solid radioactive material in a sealed capsule, that has limited dispersibility and is not in powder form.
Low floor wagon A rail wagon with a low loading platform built to carry, inter alia, ITUs
Low specific activity material Low specific activity (LSA) material shall mean radioactive material that by its nature has a limited specific activity, or radioactive material for which limits of estimated average specific activity apply. External shielding materials surrounding the LSA material shall not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity.
Low toxicity alpha emitters Low toxicity alpha emitters are: natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235 or uranium-238, thorium-232, thorium-228 and thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical and chemical concentrates; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days.
Lower temperature limit Temperatures below this limit lead to quality degradation, e.g. chilling.
Low temperature flexibility Increased kink resistance achieved by adding plasticizer to synthetic plastics.
Low-temperature refrigerated containers Refrigerated containers that enable goods to be transported at temperatures as low as -60˚C.
Lumen (Latin: lumen - cavity). Pores in the structure of wood, cavities in vegetable fibers.


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Management system Management system shall mean a set of interrelated or interacting elements (system) for establishing policies and objectives and enabling the objectives to be achieved in an efficient and effective manner.
Marine Carrier Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performanceof carriage by deep sea, coastal or feeder vessel.
Maritime container A container strong enough to be stacked in a cellular ship and to be top lifted
Maximum cargo height Frozen goods are packed using the block stowage method merely for protection against the effects of external heat, so it must be ensured that subzero temperatures are maintained in the floor, side and ceiling areas. A free space of at least 8-10 cm must be left for the return air between the top of the cargo block and the container roof. This maximum cargo height is indicated in the containers.
Maximum gross the maximum permissible mass of cargo packed into a CTU combined with the mass of the CTU, also referred to as the rating and would normally be marked onto CTUs as appropriate.
Maximum normal operating pressure Maximum normal operating pressure shall mean the maximum pressure above atmospheric pressure at mean sea level that would develop in the containment system in a period of one year under the conditions of temperature and solar radiation corresponding to environmental conditions in the absence of venting, external cooling by an ancillary system, or operational controls during transport.
Maximum payload the maximum permissible mass of cargo to be packed into or onto a CTU. It is the difference between the maximum gross mass or rating and the tare weight, which are normally marked on CTUs as appropriate;
Maximum Securing Load (MSL) The strength of a material to resist a tensile load without suffering plastic / permanent deformation. The MSL is extremely important for cargo securing, since materials which are liable to suffer permanent deformation must not be used for securing cargoes. Cargo securing materials must therefore be dimensioned to ensure that they are loaded no further than their MSL.
Mediterranean fruit fly Quarantine pest which particularly attacks citrus fruit.
Medulla (Latin: medulla - marrow). The medula is responsible for feeding the wood fibre.
Mesophilic microorganisms (humidity) (Greek: mesos - middle; philos - love). Microorganisms thriving above 86% relative humidity.
Mesophilic microorganisms (temperature) (Greek: mesos - middle; philos - love). Microorganisms thriving at medium temperatures.
mm H2O Millimeters of water: Unit for small differences in pressure, measured as the difference in height in mm between the two surfaces of a water collumn in a siphon. 1 mm H2O = 9.81 Pa.
Modular unit load dimensions Packages or unit loads are suitable for modular container stuffing if their dimensions or multiples of their dimensions are equal to the internal dimensions of the container. By using appropriately dimensioned load units it is possible to tightly pack the container making good use of the "natural" securing elements of the container, namely the side and end walls. If the cargo modular unit load dimensions and the overall load is of appropriate dimensions, there may be no need for additional load securing measures to be implemented.
Modular unit load packaging Packaging whose dimensions permit the items in a consignment to be grouped together to form modules. Modules are predefined basic sizes defined for cargo units which enable them to fit together to be combined and to be transported with different means of transport.
Moisture sensitivity Degree to which the quality of a product is impacted even by minimal uptake of water vapor.
Mold growth threshold Relative humidity in excess of 75% promotes rapid multiplication of the majority of mold species.
Monophagic (Greek: monos - one; phagein - to eat). Associated with a particular food source.
MSL Maximum Securing Load (MSL) is the strength of a material to resist a tensile load without suffering plastic / permanent deformation. The MSL is extremely important for cargo securing, since materials which are liable to suffer permanent deformation must not be used for securing cargoes. Cargo securing materials must therefore be dimensioned to ensure that they are loaded no further than their MSL. For maritime transport "MSL" is to be used in accordance with appendix 13 of the guideline entitled "Bekanntmachung von Änderungen von Richtlinien für die sachgerechte Stauung von Ladung bei der Beförderung met Seeschiffen" ("Publication of amendments to guidelines for the correct stowage of cargoes for carriage in ocean-going ships") of 14 February 1996 (published in the German "Bundesanzeiger" newspaper, 7 May 1996). The text of this guideline can be found in TIS.
Mycotoxins Poisonous metabolic products produced by mold.
Multimodal refers to CTUs that are designed for use on more than one mode of transport
Multimodal transport Carriage of goods by two or more modes of transport
Multimodal transport operator (MTO) Any person who concludes a multimodal transport contract and assumes the whole responsibility for the performance thereof as a carrier or a transport operator.


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Narrowband Frequency band for data transfer via the power cable. The frequency on narrow band is 55 kHz.
Neutral behavior Goods which are mutually compatible and compatible with their environment display neutral behavior.
Nominal breaking load Breaking load (BL): Specifies the load at which a material will fail.
Non-climacteric fruits Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time) Fruits which are not (yet) ready to eat or ripe for consumption.
Non-respiring goods Goods which do not cause a change in the ambient atmosphere (except perhaps a release of water). These include all frozen goods and goods sealed in gas-tight packaging, steel products and all products which are not subject to decomposition processes. Caution! Degradation processes occur even in scrap lumber / wooden chips, shredded scrap metal, waste paper, etc. although these cannot be described as respiration, they nevertheless consume O2 and release CO2 to the extent that this may lead to the build-up or life-threatening concentrations in closed rooms.
NVOCC Non Vessel Operating Common Carriers: A company that ships goods on behalf of a client, especially internationally, but that does not own its own ships or airplanes. It operates much like any other carrier, issuing its own bills of lading or air waybills.
Non Vessel Operating Container Carrier: A company that ships goods on behalf of a client, especially internationally, but that does not own its own ships or airplanes but does own or operate a number of container for shipping FCL or LCL cargoes for third party shippers.
Nonwoven fabric Water absorbent cloth underneath the container roof.


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Odor sensitivity Sensitivity of the goods to foreign odors.
Odor tainting Taking up of odors from foreign substances of gases in the environment.
Onion neck rot Rot of the neck of onions caused by the mold Botrytis allii.
Onward- carriage The colloquial meaning is the transport of goods from the sea port / airport to the domestic port of destination,in accordance with the German Commercial Code, onward-carriage is the delivery of goods from the store of a receiving agent to the final recipient. During this phase of the transit chain, the freight regulations of the German Commercial Code apply.
Open-sided container Container with sides which can be opened, usually closed with tarpaulin and bows.
Open-top container Container open at the top (enables the container to be loaded by crane).
Oxidative fat cleavage Fat cleavage produced by atmospheric oxygen.
Over Panamax See Post Panamax
Overloaded A container where the combined mass of the cargo and the container is greater than the maximum gross mass shown on the safety approval plate.
Overpack an enclosure used by a single shipper to contain one or more packages and to form one unit for convenience of handling and stowage during transport.
Examples of overpacks are a number of packages either:
* placed or stacked on to a load board such as a pallet and secured by strapping, shrink-wrapping, stretch-wrapping or other suitable means; or
* placed in a protective outer packaging such as a box or crate;
Overweight A container where the combined mass of the cargo and the container is less than the maximum gross mass shown on the safety approval plate but exceeds either:
* he maximum gross mass shown on the shipping manifest
* the road or rail maximum masses when combined with the tare of the container carrying vehicle.


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Package Package shall mean the complete product of the packing operation, consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport. The types of package covered by these Regulations that are subject to the activity limits and material restrictions of Section IV and meet the corresponding requirements are:
Excepted package;
Industrial package Type 1 (Type IP-1);
Industrial package Type 2 (Type IP-2);
Industrial package Type 3 (Type IP-3);
Type A package;
Type B(U) package;
Type B(M) package;
Type C package.
Packages containing fissile material or uranium hexafluoride are subject to additional requirements.
Packages the complete product of the packing operation, consisting of the packaging and its contents as prepared for transport;
Packaging receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function
Packer the party that places the goods within the container, trailer or packaging.
Packing the packing of packaged and/or unitized or overpacked cargoes into CTUs
Pail A container made from plastic or steel with a firmly closed lid, for transportation of liquids, in particular paints and oils.
Pallet a term used for a load-carrying platform onto which loose cargo is stacked before being placed inside a container. It is designed to be moved easily by fork-lift trucks.
Pallet box Transport container/box with integrated pallet.
Palletization Loading of uniform packages onto pallets in accordance with a predefined packing plan. For reasons of stability this should be done in such a way that the load items interlock.
Palletized Cargo which has been grouped into a single cargo unit. Better rates are generally available for packing containers with palletized loads in the case of LCL (Less than Container Load), as a pallet load can be better handled with ground conveyors (q.v.) than individual items.
Panamax Ship with dimensions that allow it to pass through the Panama canal: maximum length 295 m, maximum beam overall 32.25 m, maximum draught 13.50 m.
Paper dunnage Covering the floor. sides and cargo surface with paper dunnage provides protection against dripping sweat.
Parasitoses These are diseases caused by parasites.
Partial pressure difference In a mixture of gases, each component has a partial pressure. The sum total of all partial pressures is the absolute pressure. The partial pressure difference is the difference between the partial pressures of the gases either side of a gas separation membrane.
Particulate air contaminants Air pollution caused by dust.
Passive behaviour Defines the sensitivity of cargo to other cargo and to its environment (e.g. sensitivity to foreign odors).
Payload The revenue-producing load carried by means of transport.
PCT Power Cable Transmission: Transfer of digital data by means of the high-voltage power table.
Peel discolouration Chilling damage in citrus fruit.
Penetration Penetration of packages occurs as a result of insect activity (holes eaten out by insects).
Permeation rate Property of a material which measures the rate at which gases pass through the material as a result of solution diffusion processes.
Phase change Change to the state of an aggregate as a result of temperatures rising above or below the solidification and melting temperatures, e.g. with oils and fats.
PH value Hydrogen ion concentration. This indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Physiological ripeness Post-climacteric: This is the start of overripeness. The fruits start to decompose, the taste suffers and the fruits can easily be attacked by mold or rot.
Phytosanitary certificate Certificate of health under the International Plant Protection Convention.
Picking or industrial ripeness Preclimacteric, the stage of ripeness prior to the ready-to-eat/ripe for consumption stage.
Piggy back Transport of road vehicles on rail wagons.
Pileworm/Shipworm Teredo which destroys wood.
Pipe clamps These are used to protect cylindrical goods, to unitize them and to ensure that they can be transported safely. They comprise pairs of squared lumber, steel profiles or similar materials which are placed above or below the goods and are generally connected to each other with threaded rods at the sides.
Pitching Movements of a ship around its transverse axis.
Placard Placards are, in accordance with the dangerous goods stipulations of the IMDG code, adhesive placards that indicate to all parties concerned what type of dangerous goods are being transported. They differ from labels in terms of size, although labels have the same purpose.

Placards of at least 25 x 25 cm must be attached to the outside of the container or vehicle. Labels of a size of 10 x 10 cm must be attached to each package to be transported.

Pocket wagon A rail wagon with a recessed pocket to accept the axle/wheel assembly of a semi trailer.
Poikilothermic pests (Greek: poecil - multicolored; thermos - heat) Cold-blooded pests.
Polymerization (Greek: poly - many; meros - part) Gelling of oils caused by exposure to heat, in particular in the context of plastics manufacture.
Polyphagic (Greek: poly - many) Associated with many food sources.
Polypropylene wrapped Hercules, Hercules cordage A particularly strong type of rope: Hercules rope is a combination of fiber and wire rope, the individual strands have a wire core. This construction means that Hercules rope is easier to handle than ordinary wire rope.
Polyurethane foam Used to insulate refrigerated containers. It is also known as construction foam.
Porthole container Refrigerated containers without a separate refrigeration unit:

Porthole refrigerated containers, also called insulated or CONAIR containers, do not have their own refrigeration unit. They are thus reliant on an external supply of cold air. This is achieved by refrigeration units of various types, permanently installed on the ship, permanently installed in the terminal or clip-on units for individual containers. Porthole containers are thermally insulated and have two sealable openings on the end walls (the portholes) through which cold air can be blown into the container and warm air can be extracted. The cold air is forced through the lower opening into the container, then distributed throughout the load via the T-bar floor, and subsequently flows through the load to the top of the container and is extracted through the upper opening.

Postclimacteric (Latin: post - after; climactericus - turning point, critical time) Physiological ripeness.
Post fermentation Heat and moisture can cause products such as coffee, cocoa, tobacco to ferment again, which in turn can make them unfit for consumption.
Postmortem (Latin: post - after; mors - death) After death.
Post Panamax Ship with at least one dimension greater than Panamax.
Precarriage The carriage of goods (containers) by any mode of transport from the place of receipt to the port (place) of loading into the ocean vessel (main means of transport).
Preclimacteric (Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time) Picking, harvesting, shipping or industrial ripeness.
Pre-fabricated lashing belts These are ready-made lashing belts with hooks and tensioning elements sewn in.
Preserved foods Semi-preserved foodstuffs with limited shelf life.
Preserved foodstuffs Foodstuffs preserved by sterilization and stored in cans/jars.
Preslung cargo units In order to accelerate unloading, the strops used on loading are left on the cargo units. This then makes slinging unnecessary when discharging the cargo.
Pre-Trip Inspection (PTI) Test to examine correct operation of a refrigerated container. The test should be carried out before transporting refrigerated goods.
Principal A person for whom another acts as an agent.
Private siding Direct rail connection to a company.
Protection of stored commodities Protection of goods against spoilage by animal pests.
Psychrophillic micro-organisms (Greek: psychros - cold, philos - love) Micro-organisms that thrive at low temperatures.
Psychrophillic spoilage Spoilage on the surface of meat/fish.
Putrefaction Autolysis due to enzymes within the meat.
Pycnometer (Greek: pyknos - sealed) Measuring device used to determine the density of liquids.


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Quarantinable diseases (French: quarante - forty): infectious and notifiable diseases that carry a mandatory isolation period (quarantine) for infected parties. Such diseases can be spread as a result of trade and transportation.
Quarantine Precaution against contagion and infections:Isolation, (French: quarante - forty) originally lasting forty days, to prevent the introduction of diseases and pests.
Quarantine pests (French: quarante - forty) Pests that carry or spread quarantinable diseases (see above), of which can themselves be termed quarantinable diseases.


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Radiation class Radiation conditions calculated on the basis of the measured duration of sunshine and solar altitude for 10 day measurement periods.
Radiation level Radiation level shall mean the corresponding dose rate
Radiation protection programme Radiation protection programme shall mean systematic arrangements that are aimed at providing adequate consideration of radiation protection measures.
Radioactive contents Radioactive contents shall mean the radioactive material together with any contaminated or activated solids, liquids and gases within the packaging.
Radioactive material Radioactive material shall mean any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed the values specified in paras 402–407.
Rail loading gauge The profile through which a rail vehicle and its loads (wagons - ITUs) must pass, taking into account tunnels and track-side obstacles.
Rancidity Oils and fats spoil by becoming rancid. This causes changes in odor and taste, which can make edible oils and fats inedible.
Reach stacker Tractor vehicle with front equipment for lifting, stacking or moving.
Recovery Capacity of a material or construction to return to its original position (elastic deformation).
Recrystalization If meat is frozen rapidly at low temperatures (e.g. -27°C), small ice crystals are produced. If meat rises to a higher temperatures (e.g. -10°C), the ice crystals grow larger, i.e. they recrystallize. As of a certain size, they can rupture the cell walls of the meat. These "perforated" cell walls lose substantially more cell juices than cell walls which are not damaged. The result is a loss of juice, also known as "drip loss".
Reefer Industry term for a temperature-controlled container. Inside each one is a complex system of coils, wires and electrical fittings, which are managed by a computer that controls everything from the temperature and humidity to ventilation and gas levels, all working to prevent the deterioration of fresh food or other sensitive goods over long distances and periods of time.
Relative humidity Relative humidity is derived from the ratio of absolute moisture content to saturation content. Depending on its temperature, air can absorb different quantities of water vapor until it is saturated (100% relative humidity). Absolute humidity (moisture content) is the quantity of water actually present in the air and is measured in grams per cubic meter (g/m2). Relative humidity expresses as a percentage the quantity of water vapor the air has at a specific temperature, relative to its saturation content. If, for instance, air at 20°C has an absolute humidity of 12.1 it will have a relative humidity of 70%. If air has reached its saturation content at 20°C, it has absorbed 17.3 g/m3 of water.
Residual oil, feedstuffs containing Pressing residues arising from oil extraction from oil-bearing seeds/ fruit.
Respiration Breathing. Even after it has been harvested, fruit undergoes ripening processes. Bananas, for instance, absorb O2 from the ambient atmosphere, convert starch to sugar and release CO2 ethylene, water vapor and heat. This ripening process is also known as respiration.
Respiring heat Heat which is released during respiration.
Respiring goods Generally goods of vegetable origin, for example fruits, for which ripening or degradation processes are taking pale. These takr air (or gases) from the atmosphere surrounding them and give off SO2, water vapor and heat to their environment.
Responsible person a person appointed by a shore-side employer who is empowered to take all decisions relating to his/her specific task, having the necessary current knowledge and experience for that purpose, and who, where required, is suitably certificated or otherwise recognized by the regulatory authority.
Return air temperature Temperature of the air which is drawn off from the refrigerated hold / container. The return air temperature is controlled during refrigeration.
Risk factors Required information on possible risks for the transport, handling and storage processes.
Risk of larceny / theft Risk of the illegal removal or appropriation of goods or objects. A distinction is made between simple larceny (i.e. without the use of force) and compound larceny (i.e. with forced entry by breaking and entering or by copied keys).
Road – rail transport Combined transport by rail and road.
Road train A motor vehicle coupled to a trailer (sometimes referred to in English as a drawbar-trailer combination).
ROLA Roll on - Roll off trains. Similar to a piggyback train but the entire road vehicle, tractor unit and trailer, is driven on and off special rail wagons.
Roll angle Angle at which a ship moves around its longitudinal axis.
Roll on – roll off (RO-RO) Roll on - Roll off. Loading and unloading of a road vehicle, a wagon or an ITU on or off a ship on its own wheels or wheels attached to it for that purpose. In the case of rolling road, only road vehicles are driven on and off a train.
Rolling road Transport of complete road vehicles, using roll-on roll-off techniques, on trains comprising low-floor wagons throughout
Rolling road wagon A rail wagon with low floor throughout which, when coupled together, form a rolling-road.
Roll oscillation Oscillation due to rolling. This is the same given the the movement of a ship around its longitudinal axis.
Roof bows Steel or aluminum frame construction in conjunction with removable wooden/aluminum gates that hold the tarpaulin of a truck, trailer, semi-trailer or a swap body. This type of open-sided construction is sometimes known as a tarpaulin truck.
RO-RO ramp A flat or inclined ramp, usually adjustable, which enables road vehicles to be driven onto or off a ship or a rail wagon.
RO-RO ship Roll-on/roll-off: Cargo ship on which the mobile cargo can be rolled directly on and off board (by lorry, trailer,etc.) by means of bow, stern and side doors (ramps). In contrast to this, cargo loaded and discharged on other cargo ships by means of their own or external loading tackle (vertical handling).
Round turn Hawsers, ropes or belts wound around an item. On the one hand as a basis for forming a knot, on the other hand as a method of lashing. Unfortunately, round turn lashing is a widespread "securing method". It is absolutely unsuitable for securing a cargo as the cargo can move "freely" in the loop and no securing effect is thus achieved.


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Safe to transport Cargo is secured appropriately if it is loaded, stowed and secured in such a way that it cannot be damaged by events that can be reasonably expected during carriage.
Safety approval plate A plate permanently affixed to every approved container at a readily visible place, adjacent to any other approval plate issued for official purposes, where it cannot be easily damaged. The safety approval plate may be combined together with other official plates but all must show:
The words "CSC Safety Approval Plate"
The country of approval and approval reference
Date (month and year) of manufacture
the manufacturer's identification number
Maximum operating gross mass
Allowable stacking mass for 1.8g
Transverse racking test load
also known at the CSC Plate
Salmonellosis Infectious, febrile intestinal and general diseases caused by salmonellae.
San-José scale Quarantine pest that attacks stone fruit, pomaceous fruit and berries, as well as decorative woods and structural lumber.
Saturation content Depending on its temperature, air can absorb different quantities of water vapor until it is saturated (100% relative humidity).
Sealed package Packaging impervious to water vapor used to store goods at risk of corrosion. Desiccants are used in sealed packages to maintain an artificial atmosphere with a relative humidity of <40%. No corrosion is possible below this threshold.
Secondary infection Contamination caused as a result of microorganisms (durable spores) from previous contaminated loads that are able to attack a subsequent cargo.
Self-heating Temperature increase within an organic solid without external heat input.
Semi-finished product (semi) Steel products that have already been shaped by hot-rolling or continuous casting processes and which are then subjected to further shaping to produce finished products. These include: Rough-rolled blocks (blooms with round or square cross-sections), slabs, billets, boards and ingots.
Semi-trailer A non-powered vehicle for the carriage of goods, intended to be coupled to a motor vehicle in such a way that a substantial part of its weight and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle. Semi-trailers may have to be specially adapted for use in combined transport.
Sender See Consignor
Separation Chill haze.
Ship a seagoing or non-seagoing watercraft, including those used on inland waters:
Shipment Shipment shall mean the specific movement of a consignment from origin to destination.
Shipper any person or organization paying for its cargo to be shipped from one place to another.
Shipping mark Part of the marking on packages. The shipping mark comprises:
Identification marks: e.g. initial letters of recipient or shipper
Identification number: e.g. the recipient;s order number
Total number of items in the complete consignment
Sequential number of the package in the consignment
Final destination and port of destination.
Shock and/or tilt indication These indicators area attached to sensitive loads for monitoring purposes. they indicate which specified threshold values had been exceeded either in terms of acceleration or tilt.
Short sea maritime route between two or more coastal ports normally undertaken by small coastal ships or barges.
Short sea shipping Movement of cargo by sea between ports situated in Europe as well as between ports in Europe and ports situated in non-European countries having a coastline on the enclosed seas bordering Europe.
Shrinkage in mass Loss in volume, for instance with leather goods as a result of drying out.
Shrinkage / shortage Loss in volume, reduction (weight loss) of goods during transport.
Shrink wrapping Shrink wrapping involves enclosing the package contents in shrink film (flat or tubular film), heat sealing any unsealed portions and separating the packages from the film web or covering the package contents with a shrink cover. Depending upon the shape and weight of the package contents, the shrink material used should be PE or plasticized PVC film of a thickness of 0.01 to 0.2 mm, with PE films being particularly suitable for heavy items. The film is heated from the outside in a shrink-wrap oven or with hand-held heat gun, thus releasing the captive tension in the file. Shrink films are produced in either mono-axial (in a single direction) or bi-axial (in two directions) orientation. As the film cools down, it shrinks around the package contents, applying a very low pressure per unit area.
Sintering Physical changes in materials caused by high temperatures; applied in particular to metals, ceramics and minerals / rock.
Shunting The operation when single railway wagons or groups of railway wagons are pushed to run against each other and be coupled together.
Sirex wasp (Urocerus gigas L.) Giant wood wasp. When using packaging made of wood for marine transport to Australia and New Zealand, the appropriate treatment and certification of the wood must be observed.
SKD SKD (Semi Knocked Down cars). For export to countries which apply high levels of customs duty to luxury goods, automobiles are shipped in completely knocked down (CKD) or semi/part knocked down (SKD, PKD) form. In this case, the package sizes for the individual components are adapted precisely to the container in which they are transported, which means that the cargo is secured by tight fit.
Skeletal trailer A skeletal trailer composed of a simple chassis comprising of longitudinal main beams, rolling gear and container support (transverse) beams for the mounting of an intermodal container, sometimes known as a Chassis.
Skids Skids are sled-like bases used to facilitate ground conveyance of / securing of, for example, heavy machinery and machine parts.
Slab Cuboid half-finished steel products that are hot-rolled into sheets at the rolling mill.
Slim wedges See tapered blocks.
Slinging Describes the process of attaching slinging equipment (for example, ropes, chains or webbing slings) to a load in order for it to be lifted / transshipped safely using lifting gear, for example, a crane.
Slit strip Rolled sheets are produced in relatively wide strips (e.g. >600 mm), also called wide strip, in order to be able to offer narrower strips, the strips are cut to slit strip in a slitting unit.
Slot position Specified the position of the container on board the ship, for example using the Bay Row Tier system.
Slot rate Rate used to calculate the cost of renting a slot for transporting a single container on board a ship.
Smart Reefer A type of refrigerated container (trade name).
Sorption behavior (Latin: adsorbere - take up) Absorption or release of water vapor by a hygroscopic cargo until equilibrium is reached.
Sorption isotherms Graphical representation of the sorption behavior of a substance at a specified temperature.
Special arrangement Special arrangement shall mean those provisions, approved by the competent authority, under which consignments that do not satisfy all the applicable requirements of these Regulations may be transported.
Special form radioactive material Special form radioactive material shall mean either an indispersible solid radioactive material or a sealed capsule containing radioactive material.
Specially-shaped stanchions These are collapsible stanchions that can be inserted and locked in place or unlocked and folded down. Stanchions are suitable for providing tight fitting lateral load securing for many types of load.
Spine wagon A rail wagon with a central chassis designed to carry a semi-trailer.
Spontaneous combustion A rise in temperature of an organic solid without external heat to a point where the solid ignites spontaneously.
Many spreaders have in addition grappler arms that engage the bottom side rails of an ITU.
Spreader Containers were traditionally handled using four wire ropes and cranes. However, as the opening angle of the wire ropes placed considerable horizontal pressure on the tops of the containers, steel frame constructions (spreaders) were introduced in order to reduce these forces. These spreaders have undergone constant development are are still used on container gantries today.
Stacking Storage or carriage of ITUs on top of each other.
Stacking load The force acting on lower packing units as a result of the units stacked on top of them. Standardized DIN and ISO symbols are used to identify the permitted stacking loads.
Stalk position Different positions of tobacco leaves on the stalk which are harvested at different times.
Stanchion Rods or bars on the sides and corners of an open means of transport or container, used to secure the cargo. Removable stanchions are inserted into the stanchion pockets provided.
Stomach poison Poison which enters the body of the insect on food intake (ingestion). Stomach poisons are usually administered using artificial bait.
Storage climate conditions Refers to the specific external conditions (humidity, temperature, ventilation) in which particular products can be stored without risk of a reduction in value or of damage to the products.
Stowage The positioning of packages, IBCs, containers, swap-bodies, tank-containers, vehicles or other CTUs on board ships, in warehouses and sheds or in other areas such as terminals.
Stowage factor The stowage factor specifies how many cbm or cbf of hold space in a ship will be taken up by a metric tonne, a US ton, or an imperial ton (1.000 kg / 907.18 kg) of cargo taking into account gaps, shape of the hold, number of, tween decks, supports and the use of dunnage.
Straddle carrier A rubber-tyred overhead lifting vehicle for moving or stacking containers on a level reinforced surface.
Stretch wrap Stretch film used to wrap cargo to form bales or to wrap cargo to pallets.
Strip To unpack / unload a container.
Stripping Unloading of cargo from an ITU.
Strop Slinging equipment from various materials. Strops are slung round the load and attached to the hook of the crane.
Stuff To pack or load a container.
Stuffing The act of packing goods within a container or trailer.
Sublimation Transition from the solid to gaseous state without passing through the liquid state.
Super high cube container Container exceeding ISO dimensions. These dimensions vary and may include, for example, lengths of 45' (13.72 m), 48' (14.64 m), or 53' (16.10 m).
Surface contaminated object Surface contaminated object (SCO) shall mean a solid object that is not itself radioactive but which has radioactive material distributed on its surface.
Swap body A freight carrying unit optimised to road vehicle dimensions and fitted with handling devices for transfer between modes, usually road/rail.
Sweat class Classification of sweat water according to intensity. Grades range from 0 (no sweat water) through to 9 (greatest formation of sweat water). The classification is made by observing the volume of water produced by m2 surface, thus how many grams of sweat water appear for each square meter for each of the grades.
Swellability Increase in volume of solid substances, particularly hygroscopic substances, (paper, natural fibers) as a result of exposure to moisture.
Syneresis Congregation of molecules, leads to "sweating" in cereals.
Syrup formation Formation of viscous liquids as a result of humidity and warmth, for example, in dried fruits.


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Tank Tank shall mean a portable tank (including a tank container), a road tank vehicle, a rail tank wagon or a receptacle that contains solids, liquids, or gases, having a capacity of not less than 450 L when used for the transport of gases.
Tank container A large container essentially comprising an ISO frame in which liquid containers are mounted. They must meet special requirements with respect to pressure-resitance as a result of the pressures they have to withstand. For this reason, the actual containers are generally cylindrical or sperical in form. Several containers can be mounted either horizontally or vertically in a single frame. Only specific containers must be used for foodstuffs and must be marked "Potable liquids only". Tank containers for hazardous goods must meet the requirements of the IMDG code. Half-height tank containers serve to carry high-density liquids which cannot be carried in normal tank containers because they cannot be filled to a high enough level and are therefore subject to surging.
Tapered blocks These are wedges cut at a narrow angle to allow small gaps between items of cargo to be braced. They are also referred to as slim wedges or driving wedges.
Tare Weight of ITU or vehicle without cargo
Tare mass / weight The mass of the empty container including permanently affixed ancillary equipment.
TBU Transformer Bypass Unit: Component of a remote refrigerated container monitoring system with data transfer via the power cable. A TBU allows a transformer to be bridged, that would otherwise not let the data signal pass.
Telescope carton The top of telescope cartons is fabricated as a separate part and overlaps all four sides of the carton (e.g. banana boxes).
Temperature-controlled transport Transportation during which the optimum temperature for chilled and frozen product is maintained.
Temperature/dew point difference The difference between the temperature of the goods and the dew point temperature of the air surroundings of the goods.
Temperature gradient Differences in temperature within a spatial distance.
Terminal A place equipped for the transhipment and storage of ITUs.
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. A standard unit based on an ISO container of 20 feet length (6.10 m), used as a statistical measure of traffic flows or capacities.

One standard 40' ISO Series I container equals 2 TEUs

Textured coated board Plywood board with a phenolic laminate backing to enhance durability. The laminate is textured with a screen-printing process.
Theoretical density Pure solid lumber without cavities.
Thermophilic microorganisms (Greek: thermos - heat, philos - love) Microorganisms that thrive on heat.
Thigmotaxis (Greek: thigma - contact, touch; taxis - arrangement, sequentce) Stimulus by touch.
Through or into Through or into shall mean through or into the countries in which a consignment is transported but specifically excludes countries over which a consignment is carried by air, provided that there are no scheduled stops in those countries.
Tier Layer in a container that is numbered from bottom to top.
Tight fit A method of securing the load by direct or indirect physical contact with load-bearing components of the means of transport or the transport container.
TLV Treshold Limit Value(referring to harmful substances in the workplace)
Tower units Cooling equipment for supplying of cool air to porthole containers in terminals.
Toxic (Greek: toxikon - poison). Poisonous.
Toxicity (Greek: toxicon - poison). The degree to which a substance is poisonous.
Track gauge The distance between the internal sides of rails on a railway line. It is generally 1.435 m.

Other gauges are generally used in some European countries: for instance, 1.676 m in Spain and Portugal, 1.524 m in the Russian Federation.

Trade imbalance Discrepancy between the amount a country imports and the amount it exports.
Trailer A non-powered vehicle for the carriage of goods, intended to be coupled to a motor vehicle, excluding semi-trailers.
Transhipment Moving ITUs from one means of transport to another.
Transpiration losses Evaporation losses in vegetable products as a result of respiration (transpiration).
Transport movement of cargo by one or more modes of transport;
Transport index Transport index (TI) assigned to a package, overpack or freight container, or to unpackaged LSA-I or SCO-I, shall mean a number that is used to provide control over radiation exposure.
Transport operator The person responsible for the carriage of goods, either directly or using a third party.
Transport-related acceleration forces Negative and positive accelerations are dynamic, mechanical stresses which occur in two main types during the transportation of goods.
regular acceleration forces and
irregular acceleration forces
Regular acceleration forces primarily occur in maritime transport. Acceleration of up to one g (g= 9.81 m/s2) and, in extreme cases, even more, may occur due to rolling and pitching in rough seas. Such regular acceleration forces have an impact on the effort involved in load securing.

Irregular acceleration forces occur during cornering or when a train passes over switches, during braking, starting up, hoisting and lowering. Such acceleration forces are not generally repeated, but they may occur several times at varying intensities during transport. These are the typical stresses of land transport and transport, handling and storage operations.

Transport-related properties of products Product properties required for transport, handling and storage processes.
Transport temperatures Loading, travel and pulp temperatures / Optimum storage temperatures of a product.
Tray Trays are preformed containers made from plastic to take individual fruits that are particularly sensitive to pressure.
Trichinosis Human disease caused by triciniellae (trichinella spiralis). Household pets, for example may be secondary hosts. Meat inspections are statutory preventive measures.
Turgor (Latin: turgescere - to swell). Inner pressure, distension of cells.
Turnbuckle Tightening elements made up for two threaded rods, a threaded barrels and a lever, usually in the form of a ratchet. Turnbuckles are the preferred tensioning method when securing loads with chains.
Turner Banana that is becoming ripe to eat.
Twenty Foot Equivalent unit (teu) A standard unit based on an ISO container of twenty feet length (6.10m), used as a statistical measure of traffic flow or capacity.
Twistlock A twistlock and corner casting together form a standardised rotating connector for securing shipping containers. The primary uses are for locking a container into place on container ship, semi-trailer truck or railway container train; and for lifting of the containers by container cranes and sidelifters.


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Unaccompanied combined transport Transport of a road vehicle or an intermodal transport unit (ITU, see 4.1), not accompanied by the driver, using another mode of transport (for example a ferry or a train).
Unirradiated thorium Unirradiated thorium shall mean thorium containing not more than 10-7 g of uranium-233 per gram of thorium-232.
Unirradiated uranium Unirradiated uranium shall mean uranium containing not more than 2 × 103 Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium-235, not more than 9 × 106 Bq of fission products per gram of uranium-235 and not more than 5 × 10–3 g of uranium-236 per gram of uranium-235.
Unit loads Unit loads are parts of a shipment that can be treated as a single unit during cargo handling and transportation. The size of dimensions of the unit load can vary according to requirements and to the means of transport and packaging container available. To optimize the cargo handling, transport and storage processes, standardization of unit loads is desirable. The most common unit loads are pallets and components with bases that resemble pallets, such as pallet boxes, IBC's, etc. the most important properties of a unit load are that is can be loaded to ensure a tight fit, its modularity and its stability, the last of which ensures that is can be stowed safely and will not be damaged by load securing measures.
Unitization Grouping together of items for transport into transport units (e.g. in containers or on pallets).
Unpacking the removal of cargo from CTUs.
Upper temperature limit Temperatures above this limit lead to quality degradation.
Upright blocking In the context of load securing, upright blocking is understood to be wooden elements inserted vertically in order to take up and transfer loads.
USDA United States Department of Agriculture; U.S. governmental department responsible for the regulations concerning the import of foodstuffs.


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VCI (Volatile Corrosion Inhibotir) method A method used to inhibit corrosion.
Vehicle a road vehicle or railway freight wagon, permanently attached to an underframe and wheels or to a chassis and wheels, which is loaded and unloaded as a unit. It also includes a trailer or similar mobile unit except those used solely for the purposes of loading and unloading.
Vessel Vessel shall mean any seagoing vessel or inland waterway craft used for carrying cargo.
Viscosity (Latin: viscum - tenacity) Degree of resistance to flow in a fluid or semi-fluid for gas, caused by internal friction.
volume-to-payload ratio The volume-to-payload ratio of a means of transport specifies the volume per unit weight payload. In the metric system, it is usual to specify the ratios in cubic meters per metric ton (m3/t). In English-speaking countries, it is usual to use cubic feet per ton(cu.ft./t).


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Walking board Plywood board, generally around 2 cm thick, often used for load securing and for interlayer dunnage or top dunnage.
Water content The percentage of total mass of a substance that is constituted by water.
Water content class Classification of goods in accordance with their water content.
Water vapor release Adsorption.
Waviness Damage as a result of moisture affecting for instance paper plies, veneered board.
Wide band Frequency band for data transfer vie the power cable. the frequencies used for wide band range from 140 kHz to 400 kHz.
Wireless LAN Wireless Local Area Network; a wireless (radio) network used for transferring data; is also used in offices.
Wire rod coil Steel product in rod wire rolling mills with varying cross-sections. German standards refer to wire rod as a product that can be wound immediately into coils from the rolling mill whilst still hot.

Coils of wire rod. Depending on the nature of the goods and any intended subsequent processing these coils are corrosion-sensitive and sensitive to mechanical damage, for example, kinks forming in the wire. The length of the winding axis is a critical factor in determining the way they are stowed.

Wood treatment certificate Certificate of treatment against insect infestation.


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Xerophilous micro organisms (Greek: xeros - dry, philos - love) Micro organisms that survive at a low relative humidity of (approximately) 75%.


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AA Always Afloat
AAPA American Association of Port Authorities
AAPMA Australian Association of Port and Maritime Authorities
AAR Association of American Railroads
AAR Against All Risks (insurance clause)
ACEP Approved continuous examination programme
ADR European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
AEI Automatic electronic identification
AI All inclusive
AID Agency for International Development
AIS Automated Identification System
AMSA Australian Marine Safety Authority
ANSI American National Standards Institution
AQI Agriculture Quarantaine Inspection
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
ATA American Trucking Association
ATDNSHINC Any Time Day or Night Sundays & Holidays Included
AWWL Always within Institute Warranties Limits
BAF Bunker Adjustment Factor
B/L Bill of Lading
BB Bare Boat
BBL Barrel
BIC Bureau International des Containers et du Transport Intermodal.
BIFA British International freight Association
BIMCO Baltic and International Maritime Council
BIs Bales
BLU CoP for Safe Loading & Unloading of Bulk Carriers
BP Safety Briefing Pamphlet
BSI British Standards Institute
C&F Cost and Freight
CAD Cash Against Documents
CAF Cost, Assurance and Freight
CAF Cost, Adjustment Factor
CBM Cubic Metre
CCC Carrier Container Council
CCC International Customs Convention for Containers (1972)
CCNR Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine
CDI-mpc Chemical Distribution Institute – Marine Packed Cargo
CEFIC Conseil Européen des Federations de l'Industrie Chimique (European Trade Association for Chemicals)
CEN European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation)
CFR Cost and Freight
CFS Container Freight Station
CG Correspondence Group
CGPM Comité International des Poids et Mesures (General Conference on Weights and Measures)
CI Cost and Insurance
CIA Chemical Industries Association
CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight
CIF&C Price includes commission as well as CIF
CIF&E Cost, Insurance, Freight, Interest and Exchange
CIFCI Cost, Insurance, Freight, Collection and Interest
CIM International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail
CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid
CIRIA The Construction Industry Research and Information Association
CL Carload" of Container load
CLECAT European Association for Forwarding, Transport, Logistics and Customs Services
CM Cubic Meter
CMPH Gross Crane Moves per hour
CMR Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road
COA Container Owners Association
COD Collect on Delivery
COfG Centre of Gravity
COGSA Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
COP Code of Practice
COU Clip on Unit
CPC Certificate of Professional Competence
CPD Carnet de Passage en Douane
CPT Carriage Paid To.
CSC Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) 1972
CSI Container Security Initiative
C-TPAT Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism
CTU Cargo Transport Unit
CWO Cash with Order
CWT Deadweight Tonnage
CY Container Yard
D&H Dangerous and Hazardous cargo
D/A Documents against Acceptance
D/P Document against Payment
DDC Destination Delivery Charge
DDP Delivery Duty Paid
DDU Delivery Duty Unpaid
DE Ship Design & Equipment Sub-Committee
DEQ Delivery Ex Quay
DES Delivered Ex Ship
DG Drafting Group
DG MOVE European Commission’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport
DG VII Directorate/General VII Transport
DIS Draft International Standard
DIT Destination Interchange Terminal
DnV Det Norske Veritas
DOL Department of Labour
DOT U.S. Department of Transportation
DSC Dangerous Goods Solid Cargoes and Containers Sub-Committee
E&T Editorial and Technical Group
ECE Economic Commission for Europe (UN Agency)
ECH Empty container handler
ECMC U.S. Exporters Competitive Maritime Council
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council (UN Agency)
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EFFA European Freight Forwarders' Association
EFIPA European Federation of Inland Ports Association
EFT Electronic Funds Transfer
EIA European Intermodal Association
EIR Equipment Interchange Receipt
EMSA European Matritime Safety Agency
ESA European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
ESC European Shippers' Council
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN Agency)
ESPO European Sea Ports Organization
ESPO European Sea Ports Association
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
ETD Estimated Time of Departure
ETS Estimated Time of Sailing
EU European Union
EVA Economic Value Added
EWIB Eastern Weighing and Inspection Bureau
EXW Ex-works
FAF Fuel Adjustment Factor, see also BAF
FAK Freight All Kinds
FAL Facilitation Committee
FAS Free Alongside Ship
FAT Fully automated twistlock
FCA Free Carrier
FCC Flexitank / Container Combination
FCL Full Container Load
FD Free Discharge
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FDIS Final Draft International Standard
FEPORT Federation of European Private Port Operators
FEU Forty-foot Equivalent Unit
FIATA International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations
FIATA International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations
FIFO Free In - Free Out (see FIO)
FIO Free In and Out
FMC Free Maritime Commissions
FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
FO Free Out
FOB Free On Board
FOR Free On Rail
FPA Free of Particular Average
FPPI Foreign Principal Party of Interest
FTA Freight Transport Association
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GBL Government Bill of Lading
GMPH Gross Moves per Hour
GOH Garment on Hanger
GP General Purpose
GRI General Rate Increase
GSF Global Shippers' Forum
GT Gross Tonnage
GVW Gross Vehicle Weight
HNS Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention
HSE Health and Safety Executive
IACS International Association of Classification Societies
IAEA International Atomic Energy Authority
IAPH International Association of Ports and Harbours
IATA International Air Transport Association
IBC Intermediate Bulk Container
IBTA International Bulk Terminals Association
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICC Interstate Commerce Commission (US)
ICGB International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc.
ICHCA ICHCA International Limited
ICS International Chamber of Shipping
IE Immediate Exit
IFA International Freight Association
IFCOR International Intermodal Freight Container Reporting Organisation
IFM Inward Foreign Manifest
IFPTA International Forest Products Transport Association
IHMA International Harbour Masters Association
IICL Institute of International Container Lessors
IIMS International Institute of Marine Surveyors
IISPCG Inter Industry Shipping & Ports Contact Group
ILA International Longshoremen’s Association
ILO International Labour Organisation
ILWU International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union
IMC Intermodal Marketing Company
IMCO International Maritime Control Organisation. See IMO
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods
IMMTA International MultiModal Transport Association
IMO International Maritime Organisation. Formally IMCO
IOSH Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
IPI Inland Point Intermodal
IRU International Road Transport Union
ISA Information System Agreement
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISO International Standards Organisation
ISP International Safety Panel of ICHCA
ISPS International Shipping & Ports Security Code
ISTDG International Symposium on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Inland Waterways
ITCO International Tank Container Owners Association
ITIGG International Transport Implementation Guidelines Group
ITF International Transport Workers’ Federation
ITF International Transport Forum
IUMI International Union of Marine Insurers
KD Knocked Down
KT Kilo tonne
L/C Letter of Credit
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LBS Pounds (mass)
LC Letter of Credit
LCL Less than a container load
LIFO Last In First Out
LNG Liquefied natural Gas
LOLO Lift On Lift Off
LR Lloyds Registry
LT Long Ton
LTL Less than Trailer Load
MAIIF Marine Accident Investigators' International Forum
MARPOL / MARPOL 73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978
MCA Maritime and Coastguard Agency (UK)
MEPC Marine Environment Protection Committee
MGM Maximum Gross Mass
MLB Mini Land Bridge
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MSA Maritime Security Act
MSC Maritime Safety Committee (IMO)
MSL Maximum Securing Load
MSSIS Maximum Security and Safety Information System
MT Metric Ton
MTSA US Maritime Transportation Security Act 2002
MTO Multimodal Transport Operator
NCB National Cargo Bureau Inc
NCITB National Committee on International Trade Documentation
NEC Not Elsewhere Classified
NES Not Elsewhere Specified
NI Nautical Institute
NMFC National Motor Freight Classification
NMPH Net Moves per Hour
NMSA National Maritime Safety Association
NOR Notice of Readiness (when the ship is ready to load.)
NOS Not Otherwise Specified
NPC National Ports Council
NSC National Safety Council
NT Net Tonnage
NVOCC Non Vessel Owning Common Carrier
NVOCC Non Vessel Owning Cargo Consolidators
NVOCC Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier / Container Carrier
O/N Order-Notify
OBL Original Bill of Lading
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
OCP Overland Common Port
OECD Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development
OGMSA Office of Global Maritime Situational Awareness
OMT Origin Motor Terminal
OOG Out of Gauge
OS&D Over, Short or Damaged
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Agency
P&I Protection and Indemnity
PADAG Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee
PAS Publicly Available Specification
PDG Packaged Dangerous Goods
PDP Port workers Development Programme
PEMA Port Equipment Manufacturers Association
POD Port of Discharge
POD Port of Destination
POD Proof of Delivery
POL Port of Loading
POL Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants
PPI Principal Party of Interest (see USPPI and FPPI)
PSGP Port Security Grant Program
PTI Pre-Trip Inspection
PTSC Port & Terminal Service Charge
RFP Request for Proposal
RFQ Request for Quotation
RHA Road Haulage Association
RID Regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
ROLA Roll on Roll off Trains
RO-RO Roll on Roll Off
RP Research Paper
RT Revenue Ton
SATLs Semi Automatic Twistlocks
SC Sub Committee
SCAC Standard Carrier Abbreviation Code
SED Shipper's Export Declaration
SFI Secure Freight Initiative
SHEX Saturdays and Holidays Excluded
SHINC Saturdays and Holidays Included
SIC Standard Industrial Classification
SIGTTO Society for International Gas Tanker & Terminal Operations Limited
SITC Standard International Trade Classification
SKU Stock Keeping Unit
SL&C Shipper's Load & Count
SL/W Shipper's Load and Count
SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974
SOLAS /SOLAS 74 Safety of Life at Sea (Convention, 1974)
SSHEX Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays Excepted
SPI Ship Port Interface
ST Short Ton
STB Surface Transportation Board
STC Said to Contain
STCC Standard Transportation Commodity Code
STW Said to weigh
SWIFT Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication
SWL Safe Working Load
T&E Transportation and Exportation
T&E Transportation and Exit
TBN To Be Nominated (when the name of a ship is still unknown)
TC104 International Standards Organization Technical Committee 104 –freight containers
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit
THC Terminal Handling Charge
TIR Transport Internationaux Routiers System
TL Trailer Load
TOA Technical and Operational Advice document
TOFC Trailer on Flat Car Rail
TOS Terms of Sale (i.e. FOB/CIF/FAS)
TRC Terminal Receiving Charge
TREMCARD Transport Emergency Card issued by CEFIC
TSR Top Side Rail
TT Club Through Trading Mutual Insurance Association Limited
TWIC Transportation Worker Identification Credential
UCP Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits
UFC Uniform Freight Classification
UIC Union Internationale de Chemins de Fers
UIRR Union Internationale des Societes de Transport Combine Rail-Route
ULCC Unit Large Crude Carrier
UN United Nations
UN ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNCTAD United Nations Commission for Trade and Development
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNISTOCK European Federation of Silo Operators
UPC Universal Product Code
USCG United States Coastguard
USPPI United States Principal Party of Interest
UTITI University of Toledo Intermodal Transportation Institute
VISA Voluntary Intermodal Seallift Agreement
VLFO Vessel Load Free Out
VSA Vessel Sharing Agreement
VSIE Vessel Supplies for Immediate Exportation
VTL Vertical Tandem Lifting
W/B Waybill
W/M Weight of Measurement
WCO World Customs Organisation
WDEX Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation Immediate Exportation
WDT Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation
WDT&E Warehouse Withdrawal for Transportation and Exportation
WG Working Group
WHO World Health Organization
WIBON Whether In Berth of Not
WMU World Maritime University
WP.15 UN ECE Working Party on the Transport of Dangerous goods (deals with ADR)
WP.24 UN ECE Working Party on Intermodal Transport and Logistics
WSC World Shipping Council
WWD Weather Working Days
YTD Years to date