|Infobox on Pineapples|
|Example of Pineapples|
|Optimum carrying temperature||10°C to 12°C (mature green)|
7°C to 10°C (turning)
|Highest freezing point||-1,1°C|
|Acceptable product temp. at loading into containers||Max. 2°C above carrying temperature|
|Ventilation setting for containers||25 m³/hr|
|Storage life||3-4 weeks (mature green/turning)|
|Climacteric / non-climacteric||Non-climacteric|
|Modified / controlled atmosphere||5%-10% CO2; 2%-5% O2|
|Potential benefits||Increased CO; slight to moderate |
Reduced O2; slight
Harvesting and handling
Pineapples are graded by degree of skin coloration, size (weight), absence of defects and disease, and uniformity of these characteristics before packing. Other characteristics include maturity, firmness, nice shape, flat eyes, well-cured broken stem (peduncle), and a minimum SSC of 12%. Crown size is a crucial grade component, with a minimum size, and ratio of crown:fruit length (0.33 to 1.5) for higher grades.
Pineapple fruit must have a desirable size and shape, with flat ‘eyes’ (individual fruitlets) and crown leaves that look fresh and are deep-green. High shell colour is not always a good measure of sweetness. Negative characteristics include: dry, brown crown leaves; dull, yellow skin appearance; presence of mould on the surface or cut stem; and fruit having an unfirm feel.
Maturity indices are change of shell color from green to yellow at the base of the fruit. Pineapples are non-climacteric fruits and should be harvested when ready to eat. A minimum soluble solids content of 12% and a maximum acidity of 1% will assure minimum flavor acceptability by most consumers.
Cooling and storage
Temperatures of 7 to 12 °C are recommended for storage of pineapples for 3-4 weeks, provided fruit are at the color break stage. A RH of 85 to 95% is recommended; a high RH significantly reduces water loss.
Exposure of pineapples to temperatures below 7°C results in chilling injury. Ripe fruits are less susceptible than unripe or partially-ripe fruits. Symptoms include dull green colour when ripened (failure to ripen properly), water-soaked flesh, darkening of the core tissue, increased susceptibility to decay, and wilting and discoloration of crown leaves.
Pineapples readily absorb off-odours from avocados and green peppers. They are neither sensitive to ethylene nor great producers of ethylene. Pineapples can be shipped with citrus fruit provided the shipping temperature is suitable for both products.
O2 below 2% can cause off-flavours. CO2 above 10% can also cause off-flavours. Less mature fruit are more susceptible to chilling injury and should not be kept below 10°C while ripe fruit may be held as low as 7°C.
Aspergillus rot, Bacterial soft rot, Black rot, Botryodiplodia rot, Core rot, Chilling injury, Internal browning, Rhizopus rot, Yeasty rot.