Terms and abbreviations

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A1 and A2 A1 shall mean the activity value of special form radioactive material that is listed in Table 2 or derived in Section IV and is used to determine the activity limits for the requirements of these Regulations. A2 shall mean the activity value of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, that is listed in Table 2 or derived in Section IV and is used to determine the activity limits for the requirements of these Regulations.

Refers to the taking up of gases of vapors by liquids and/or solids where the gas or vapor fully penetrates the liquid of solid (adsorption is limited to the surface)

Acceleration of shipment

Negative and positive accelerations are dynamic, mechanical stresses which occur in two main types during the transportation of goods:

  • regular acceleration forces and
  • irregular acceleration forces

Regular acceleration forces primarily occur in maritime transport. Acceleration of up to one g (g=9.81[m/s2])and, in extreme cases, even more, may occur due to rolling and pitching in rough seas. Such regular acceleration forces have an impact on the effort involved in load securing.
Irregular acceleration forces occur during cornering or when a train passes over switches, during braking, starting up, hoisting and lowering. Such acceleration forces are not generally repeated, but they may occur several times at varying intensities during transport. These are the typical stresses of land transport and transport, handling and storage operations.

Accompanied combined transport Transport of a complete road vehicle, accompanied by the driver, using another mode of transport (for example ferry or train).
Acid value The acid value specifies how many milligrams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) are necessary to neutralize the free fatty acids in a single gram of fat.
Across the grain The cross-section that is the result of cutting a tree trunk perpendicular to its length. (As opposed to "with the grain").
Active behavior Applies to goods that have an active influence on other goods and their environment.
Actual carrier A third party who performs the carriage completely or partly.
Additives Substances added to other substances in order to modify their properties in a particular manner or to improve processing.
Adsorption The uptake of gases, vapor or dissolved substances (this is limited to the surface of solid objects).
Adsorption delay Delayed take up of water vapor by the cargo. In the Container Handbook, this refers exclusively to water vapor and describes the fact that during the day the water vapor is given off by the cargo to the air in the container (desorption) faster than the cooling of the container air is introduces water vapor to the cargo (adsorption). The water vapor condenses on the walls of the container thus leading to damage.
Adsorption isotherms As used in the Container Handbook: Graphical representation of the uptake of water vapor by a substance at a specified temperature. For product information purposes, the sorption isotherms are usually taken for a temperature of 20˚C.
Aerobe (Greek: aer - air) Microorganisms that require atmospheric oxygen.
Aerobic respiration (Greek: aer - air) Metabolic process of goods of vegetable origin, during which glucose and atmospheric oxygen are consumed by respiration processes to form carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat.
Aflatoxins Short form of Aspergillus - flavus - toxin. A mycotoxin (mold toxin) that is produced by the fungus Aspergillus - flavus among others.
A-frame Frame shaped like the letter "A" used to transport sheet loads, similar to the type of frame used when transporting panes of glass.
Agglomeration Lump formation.
Airbag Airbags can be positioned in the gaps between the cargo in order to achieve a tight fit during loading.
Air container Container conforming to standards laid down for air transportation
Aircraft Passenger aircraft shall mean an aircraft that carries any person other than a crew member, a carrier’s employee in an official capacity, an authorized representative of an appropriate national authority, or a person accompanying a consignment or other cargo.
Aircraft Cargo Aircraft shall mean any aircraft, other than a passenger aircraft, that is carrying goods or property.
Allelopathy (Greek: allelon - mutual; pathe - influence) The mutual influence of goods of vegetable origin when stored together, caused as a result of gaseous metabolic products, for example, ethylene of carbon dioxide.
American Rust Standards Used to classify corrosion damage. The American Rust Standard is recognized worldwide and widely used. It is often used in reports produced by surveyors.
Amorphous Without shape, without a fixed form.
Anaerobe (Greek: an - without, and aer - air) A microorganism that survives without atmospheric oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration (Greek: an - without, and aer - air) Occurs with goods of vegetable origin if the permitted carbon dioxide content is exceeded.
Animal diseases Animal diseases are diseases which are caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa or fungi and may be transmitted to animals and humans.
Animal goods Goods of animal origin.
Anthrax Notifiable febrile disease caused by the anthrax bacillus.
Anthropogenic influence Influence caused by human activity.
Apparant density Density of lumber including hollow space.
Approval Multilateral approval shall mean approval by the relevant competent authority of the country of origin of the design or shipment, as applicable, and also, where the consignment is to be transported through or into any other country, approval by the competent authority of that country.
Unilateral approval shall mean an approval of a design that is required to be given by the competent authority of the country of origin of the design only.
Arrhenius equation An equation describing the dependency of reaction speed on temperature. A simplified rule of thumb for transportation purposes is that when the temperature is lowered by 10˚C, degradation processes are reduced to between half and a third, i.e. the storage life can be doubled or even trebled by lowering the temperature by 10˚C.
Articulated trailer A motor vehicle coupled to a semi-trailer.
Articulated train / double train An articulated train is a combination of an articulated truck and one or more trailers, i.e. truck tractor plus semitrailer plus trailer. German road traffic licensing regulations (StVZO) forbids combinations of this type. Section 32a stated explicitly that no trailers are to be towed behind articulated trucks.
Articulated truck An articulated truck is a combination of a truck tractor and a semitrailer.
Articulated vehicle means any motor vehicle with a trailer having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer is superimposed upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the mass of the trailer and its load is borne by the motor vehicle. Such a trailer shall be called a semi trailer.
Athwartships stowage Load stowed across the beam of the container of ship (as opposed to fore and aft stowage). In the context of load securing, it is of utmost importance whether a container is stowed athwartships or fore and aft on a ship. In the case of athwartships stowage, the greatest acceleration forces act on the actual container longitudinally rather than transversely. Load securing measures must then be taken with this in mind.
ATP agreement Agreement of the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be used for such Carriage (Agreement on the Transport of Perishables); UN agreement for the cross-border transportation of foodstuffs.
Autolysis (Greek: autos - self; lucin - separation) Self-digestion.
Autoxidation Oxidation caused atmospheric oxygen and taking place at normal temperatures.
Barge a non-seagoing watercraft used on inland or protected coastal waters:
Basket wagon A rail wagon with a demountable subframe, fitted with devices for vertical handling, to allow the loading and unloading of semi-trailers or road vehicles.
Baud Unit of speed for data transfer; 1 baud = 1 bit/s.
Bay A row of containers running from one side of the ship to the other. To be distinguished from a hold.
Bay plan Plan for the stowage of containers, in which each bay on a vessel is represented in a cross-sectional plan of the ship from bow to stern. A bay plan shows all possible positions for stowage on the vessel.
Bay-row-tier system Numbering system for the arrangement of containers on a vessel. In this numbering system, the bay is specified first, then the container row, which runs the length of the ship, and finally the tier (vertical layer).
Bay-tier-row system Numbering system for the arrangement of containers on a vessel. In this numbering system, the bay is specified first, then the tier (vertical layer) and finally the container row, which runs the length of the ship.
Beveling If a board of lumber beam is used diagonally for load securing purposes in a container, the ends must be beveled to ensure a tight fit into the container, thus allowing forces to be transferred to the container.
Big Bag A removable internal liner, strong enough to be lifted and to carry bulk cargoes of different types.
Bilge sump Sump at the lowest point of the hold, where water can collect and be pumped off.
Billets Semi-finished products (steel products) with a square of rectangular cross-section, edge lengths of 50 to 125 mm, rounded edges and a minimum length of approximately 1000 mm. This are the used to produce for bars, wire rod and special profiles or for forged or drop-forged items.
Bill of lading, bill of lading number Consignment note issued by the consignor as part of ocean-going and inland transportation processes which regulates the legal relationships between the loader, the consignor and the receiver of the goods that are being transported.

This note may be confirmation from the consignor that the goods have been received for shipping (Received for Shipment B/L) or a confirmation that the goods have been put on board (On Board B/L, Shipped on Board B/L). This document also covers the duty of the consignor to deliver the goods to their port or destination and to hand the goods over to the legitimate owner of the bill of lading in return for the bill of lading.

Bimodal semi-trailer (rail – road) A road semi-trailer that can be converted into a rail wagon by the addition of rail bogies.
Biotic activity Refers to activities evident in products of vegetable or animal origin that during transportation exert an influence on the products themselves and/or on other animal or vegetable products. Biotic activity covers biochemical, microbial and other decomposition processes (e.g. allelopathy).
Bird's mouth A bird's mouth is formed when a very flat V-shape is cut into the end of a piece of wood.
Bitter ends The ends of rope after a change of direction of any kind. The ends are usually joined by means of a knot, wire cable clamps, turnbuckles, shackles etc.
Black rot Rot attack on fruit. Black rot can always occur if damage to the fruit extends as far as the flesh. This is then easily transferred from an infected piece of fruit to the other fruits. Black rot is a frequent type of chilling damage occurring in pineapples.
Block stowage A method of loading: in block stowage, the goods are stowed as a single block, without leaving space of the flow of air. Thus, air can only pass around the block itself.
Block train a number of permanently coupled railway wagons, normally running directly between two selected terminals or entities without shunting.
Blowing Bulging observed on the lids and bases of cans caused by the formation of gas after the sterilization process and ultimitely leading and bursting. Such bulging can be caused by high temperatures (see heat-induced blowing) or low temperatures (see cold-induced) erfolgen.
Blue discoloration Blue discoloration of wood caused by blue stain fungi.
Blued steel scrap A normal steel scrap can be refined by heat treatment (heating, quenching, tempering). It undergoes a structural change which gives it optimal properties in terms of hardness and elasticity. Heat treatment leaves an oxide layer on the surface of the steel which is a bleuish color (steel blue), hence the name.
Botulism Dangerous food poisoning caused by the bacterium clostridium botulinum occuring for instance in insufficiently sterilized preserved meat of vegetables.
Box Another (less formal) name for a shipping container. This is how they are often referred to in the industry.
Box container Alternative colloquial term for the standard ISO container.
Bracing/bracing beams Items used to secure general cargo loads. Bracing is usually made from squared lumber beams that are fitted between the load and the load-bearing sections of the container in order to take up the horizontal and vertical forces acting on the load. The bracing is subject to compressive stress.
Break-bulk loose cargo, such as cartons, stowed directly in the ship's hold as opposed to containerized or bulk cargo. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown.
Brine circuit Intermediate circuit of a cooling system that uses a saline solution (brine) as a coolant to reduce the freezing point. This method is often used to reduce the amount of chemical-based coolant used in the cooling system.
Brittle fracture Caused by mechanical stress placed on plastic films at freezing temperatures.
B-Train two trailers linked together by a fifth wheel, and are up to 26 m (85 ft) long. The fifth wheel coupling is located at the rear of the lead, or first trailer and is mounted on a "tail" section commonly located immediately above the lead trailer axles.
Buckling Drying and consequential bulging of the exterior of paper packages on palets.
Buffer stow A so-called "buffer" is required when transporting a heavy load with a high mass and small surfaces for distributing the forces acting upon the object. Lumber beams are usually used for this purpose. For certain types of load, the effort involved in this load securing method can be reduced by using part of the load as a buffer. Round bars are a good example, as they are 1) capable of bearing high loads, and 2) suffer no damage as a result of being used as a buffer. For this method, a round bar is first loaded across the end wall of the container. This then acts as a buffer and, in the event of jolts during transport, cushions or distributes the forces evenly across the wall.

Since the buffer is created by the way the cargo is loaded, this method is referred to as "buffer stow".

Bulk Cargo commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities. These cargos are usually dropped or poured as a liquid or solid, into a bulk carrier's hold. Examples of bulk cargo are grain, seed, and coal and iron ore.
Bulk cargoes cargoes which are intended to be transported without any intermediate form of containment in bulk packagings or portable tanks
CA, CA atmosphere CA = Controlled Atmosphere: For example, an artificial reduction of the level of oxygen and increase in the level of carbon dioxide to extend the lifetime of goods.
CA container Container with controlled atmosphere.
Cakes Cuboid semi-finished copper product that is used to make other semi-finished or finished products.
Caking Hardening of bulk cargo caused by a release of water vapor; Causes the formation of lumps if moisture is present in salts or sugars.
Candying Hardening caused by an excessively dry atmosphere, e.g. on dried fruits.


Data network with capacitive coupling to the power network for remote monitoring of refrigerated.
Capillary condensation Condensation of vapors in the fine pores of adsorbtion media.
Cargo any goods, wares, merchandise and articles of any kind which are intended to be transported.
Cargo sweat Condensation on the surface of the cargo: Condensation can form on the cargo as a result of climatic conditions. Cargo sweat can always occur when the temperature of the cargo is lower than or equal to the dew point. It can also occur during transportation from temperature latitudes, e.g. from northern hemisphere winter to the tropics.
Cargo temperature The temperature of the cargo within the container. Can vary according to place and time (e.g. during a cooling or worming process).
Cargo transport unit (CTU) a freight container, swap-body, vehicle, railway wagon or any other similar unit; see also Intermodal Transport Unit (ITU)
Cargo transport unit (CTU) a freight container, swap-body, vehicle, railway wagon or any other similar unit;
Carrier Carrier shall mean any person, organization or government undertaking the carriage of radioactive material by any means of transport. The term includes both carriers for hire or reward (known as common or contract carriers in some countries) and carriers on own account (known as private carriers in some countries).
Carrier See Transport operator
Carrier Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.
Carrier Carrier shall mean any person, organization or government undertaking the carriage of radioactive material by any means of transport. The term includes both carriers for hire or reward (known as common or contract carriers in some countries) and carriers on own account (known as private carriers in some countries).
Catalysis (Greek: katalysis - dissolution, decomposition) Change, usually the acceleration of a chemical reaction by means of substances (catalysts) which appear to remain unchanged during the reaction process.
CBU CapacitiveBridgeUnit; component of a remote refrigerated container monitoring system where data is transferred via the power cable. A CBU is used to capacitively modulate the data signal (using a capator) over the power cable.
Centre of Gravity (Abbr. CG) The point in or near a body at which the gravitational potential energy of the body is equal to that of a single particle of the same mass located at that point and through which the resultant of the gravitational forces on the component particles of the body acts.
Circulation bypass (Abbr. CG) Occurs when air in a space does not circulate throughout the entire space, but rather seeks the path of least resistance in parts of the space.
Chassis See skeletal trailer.
CKD (Completely Knocked Down cars). For the purposes of customs, cars are not transported fully assembled, or are partially dismantled after being assembled. Final assembly of the vehicles is subsequently carried out once they reach their destination. CKD transportation makes it possible to avoid high import duties (100% and more).
Climacteric (Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time). Ready to eat or ripe for consumption.
Climacteric fruit (from the Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time). For bananas the "climacteric" is the point at which the fruits turn from green to yellow. Starch breaks down to form sugar. Fruits that reach the climacteric are ready-to-eat or ripe for consumption.
Climacteric rise (from the Latin: climactericus - turning point, critical time). The final increase in carbon dioxide excretion which marks the beginning of maturation of a fruit. After the climactic rise, fruits are ready to eat.
Clip-on units Refrigeration units used to cool porthole containers on deck, in port or during road/rail transportation.
Close coupled trailer A close-coupled trailer is fitted with a rigid tow bar which projects from its front and hooks onto a hook on the tractor. It does not pivot as a full / drawbar trailer does.
Coagulation (Latin: coagulare - to congeal). Clotting of a colloid solution, for example, protoplasma.
Coefficient of expansion, thermal, cubic Increase in volume of a material caused by an increased in temperature.
Coefficient of sliding friction Dimensionless factor indicated by the Greek letter μ. This factor is used to determine the force required to overcome the friction which is produced by a specific material combination constantly siding under the influence of a pulling force. The coefficient of sliding friction is important in load securing, since the sliding friction of a load with a specific material combination (load/loading area) must be overcome before the load slides. The greater the friction, the less effort is required in securing the load.
Cohesive resistance Resistance of an object against slipping on a surface (a function of cohesion and friction).
Coil box container Special container for transporting coils. They handle greater line loads and are equipped with coil wells and special load securing features.
Combined transport Intermodal transport where the major part of the European journey is by rail, inland waterways or sea and any initial and/or final legs carried out by road are as short as possible.
Competent authority Competent authority shall mean any body or authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with these Regulations.
Compliance assurance Compliance assurance shall mean a systematic programme of measures applied by a competent authority that is aimed at ensuring that the provisions of these Regulations are met in practice.
Confinement system Confinement system shall mean the assembly of fissile material and packaging components specified by the designer and agreed to by the competent authority as intended to preserve criticality safety.
Consignee Consignee shall mean any person, organization or government that is entitled to take delivery of a consignment.
Consignee Person entitled to take delivery of the goods
Consignee the party to whom the cargo is consigned or entrusted, is often used to define the party that will receive or bought the goods
Consignment Consignment shall mean any package or packages, or load of radioactive material, presented by a consignor for transport.
Consignment Freight sent under a single contract of carriage
Consignment Consignment shall mean any package or packages, or load of radioactive material, presented by a consignor for transport.
Consignor Consignor shall mean any person, organization or government that prepares a consignment for transport.
Consignor A person or company who puts goods in the care of others (forwarding agent/freight forwarder, carrier/transport operator) to be delivered to a consignee
Consignor the party who has released or sold the goods
Consolidation See groupage
Container Generic term for a box to carry freight, strong enough for repeated use, usually stackable and fitted with devices for transfer between modes.
Container Terminal a docking, unloading and loading area within a port designed to suit the sizes and needs of container ships.
Containment system Containment system shall mean the assembly of components of the packaging specified by the designer as intended to retain the radioactive material during transport.
Contamination Contamination shall mean the presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters.
Non-fixed contamination shall mean contamination that can be removed from a surface during routine conditions of transport.
Fixed contamination shall mean contamination other than non-fixed contamination.
Conveyance Conveyance shall mean:
For transport by road or rail: any vehicle;
For transport by road or rail: any vehicle;
For transport by water: any vessel, or any hold, compartment, or defined deck area of a vessel;
For transport by air: any aircraft.
Corner fitting Fixed points usually located at the top and bottom corners of a container into which twistlocks or other devices engage to enable the container to be lifted, stacked, secured.
Crane Conventional lifting crane where the load is suspended by cable via a jib.
Criticality safety index Criticality safety index (CSI) assigned to a package, overpack or freight container containing fissile material shall mean a number that is used to provide control over the accumulation of packages, overpacks or freight containers containing fissile material.
daN deca Newton.
Dangerous goods packaged dangerous, hazardous or harmful substances, materials or articles, including environmentally hazardous substances (marine pollutants) and wastes, covered by the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code; the term dangerous cargoes includes any empty uncleaned packagings;
Data logger Device used for automatic (and continuous) recording of data. The data can then be read out at a later time, for instance, using a laptop.
Dead air zone Area in a cargo stack with insufficient ventilation.
Deep Sea (service) maritime route between two or more major hub ports. Similar to liner service
Defined deck area Defined deck area shall mean the area of the weather deck of a vessel, or of a vehicle deck of a roll-on/roll-off ship or ferry, that is allocated for the stowage of radioactive material.
Degree of rusting Assessment of the visible amount of rusting, i.e. the degree of damage to iron and steel cargoes as a result of corrosion. The American Rust Standard is frequently used in international trade to describe the degree of rusting.
Design Design shall mean the description of special form radioactive material, low dispersible radioactive material, package or packaging that enables such an item to be fully identified. The description may include specifications, engineering drawings, reports demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements, and other relevant documentation.
Deodorization (Latin: odor - odor; de -negation = to render odorless) Elimination of odors.
Dermatitis (Latin: derma - skin; - itis - suffix denoting, inflammation) Inflammation of the skin.
Desiccant Substance for absorbing moisture.
Desorption Release of the water vapor from a substance.
Desorption isotherm Graphical representation of the release of water vapor from a substance in relation to its water content at a specified temperature. For product information purposes, the isotherms are usually taken for a temperature of 20°C.
Dew point temperature The temperature at which water vapor in the air reaches saturation point and condenses ("dew" appears).
Diffusion law (Latin: diffundere - to pour out, spread) Water vapor always flows from the higher to the lower partial pressure.
Dilattation, thermal (Latin: dilatare - to extend)Increase in the volume of a substance as a result of increased temperature.
Display packaging Packaging designed for a specific product (e.g. pears) which are also suitable for presentation at the point of sale.
Door-to-door Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.
Dormancy temperature The temperatures of cargo of vegetable origin are regulated in order to prevent loss of quality.
Dose (French: dose - appropriate measure) Quantity of a toxic substance in the body.
Double stacked wagon A rail wagon designed for the transport of containers stacked on top of each other
Dressed lumber Wood from which the sapwood has been removed.
Drip loss Loss of juice as the result of recrystallization of frozen meat. If the meat is frozen rapidly at low temperatures (e.g. -27°C), small ice crystals are produced. If the meat rises to a higher temperature (e.g. -10°C), the ice crystals grow larger, i.e. they recrystallize. As of a certain size, they can rupture the cell walls of the meat. These "perforated" cell walls lose substantially more cell juices than cell walls which are not damaged. The result is a loss of juice, also known as "drip loss".
Driving wedges See tapered blocks.
Drop Frame Trailer a form of intermodal transportation for portable bulk liquid containers or ISO tank containers. They are characteristically longer and have lower deck height ideal for transporting constantly shifting payloads.
Dry bulk Bulk cargo.
Dry port Inland terminal which is directly linked to a maritime port.
Eating ripeness Ready-to-eat or ripe for consumption (climacteric). Ideal degree of ripeness for consumption.
EN standard European standards.
Enzymes (Greek: enzymos - fermented) These are catalytic systems which break down nutrients.
Equilibrium moisture content The water content of the goods is in equilibrium with the quantity of water vapor in the ambient air (relative humidity).
Ergot Resting body (sclerotium)of the ergot fungus. Meal contaminated by ergot causes poisoning; ergot alkaloids produce uterine contractions.
Essential oil Constituent part of spices that have a strong seasoning action and odor.
EUROSAL service Container line running between the west coast of South America, the Caribbean and Europe. Members of the EUROSAL service include Hapag-Lloyd, Hamburg-Süd and CSAV.
Eutectic point E.P.) Temperature (approx. -62°C) at which all the water in the cells of the product is completely frozen, preventing microbial biotic activity and therefore preventing any loss of quality to the product. The product has an infinite storage life. Water and dissolved substances crystallize out together.
Exclusive use Exclusive use shall mean the sole use, by a single consignor, of a conveyance or of a large freight container, in respect of which all initial, intermediate and final loading and unloading and shipment are carried out in accordance with the directions of the consignor or consignee, where so required by these Regulations.
Feeder service Short sea shipping service which connects at least two ports in order for the freight (generally containers) to be consolidated or redistributed to or from a deep-sea service in one of these ports.
Feeder service Cargo to/from regional ports are transferred to/from a central hub port for a long–haul ocean voyage.
Feeder Vessel A short–sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports.
feu 'Forty-foot Equivalent Unit'. This is a container that is the same height and width as a TEU but twice the length. As a result, it has twice the capacity.
Fissile nuclides and fissile material Fissile nuclides shall mean uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239 and plutonium-241. Fissile material shall mean a material containing any of the fissile nuclides in quantities exceeding a total of 0.25 g per package or per consignment if shipped unpackaged. Excluded from the definition of fissile material is any combination of the following:
Natural uranium or depleted uranium that is unirradiated;
Natural uranium or depleted uranium that has been irradiated in thermal reactors only.
These exclusions are only valid if there is no other material with fissile nuclides in the package.
Forwarding agent See Freight forwarder
Freeport Zone where goods can be manufactured and/or stored without payment of their relevant duties and taxes.
Freight container an article of transport equipment that is of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; it is designed to transport a number of receptacles, packages, unit loads or overpacks together from the packing point to its final destination by road, rail, inland waterway and/or sea without intermediate separate handling of each package, unit load or overpack;
Freight container Freight container shall mean an article of transport equipment that is of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or other modes of transport, without intermediate reloading, designed to be secured and/or readily handled, having fittings for these purposes. The term "freight container" does not include vehicle.
Freight container - small, large 1 Freight container shall mean an article of transport equipment that is of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or other modes of transport, without intermediate reloading, designed to be secured and/or readily handled, having fittings for these purposes. The term "freight container" does not include vehicle.
Freight container - small, large 2 A small freight container shall mean a freight container that has an internal volume of not more than 3 m3 . A large freight container shall mean a freight container that has an internal volume of more than 3 m3 .
Freight forwarder Intermediary who arranges for the carriage of goods and/or associated services on behalf of a shipper.
Freight forwarder a person or company that organises shipments for individuals or other companies and may also act as a carrier. A forwarder is often not active as a carrier and acts only as an agent, in other words as a third-party (non-asset-based) logistics provider that dispatches shipments via asset-based carriers and that books or otherwise arranges space for these shipments
Freight village See Logistics centre
Full Trailer A full-trailer is a term for a trailer supported by front and rear axles and pulled by a drawbar. In Europe this is known as an A-Frame drawbar trailer. The full trailer may comprise of a semi trailer and a detachable dolly.
Fumigated container A closed cargo transport unit containing goods or materials that either are or have been fumigated within the unit. The fumigant gases used are either poisonous or asphyxiant. The gases are usually evolved from solid or liquid preparations distributed within the unit.
Gantry crane An overhead crane comprising a horizontal gantry mounted on legs which are either fixed, run in fixed tracks or on rubber tyres with relatively limited manoeuvre. The load can be moved horizontally, vertically and sideways
General cargo Cargo, consisting of goods, unpacked or packed, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletized.
General set (gen-set) A generator which can be attached to a container or truck chassis and which generates power for supplying electricity to a refrigerated container.

GGVSee Gefahrgutverordnung-See. Regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the transportation of dangerous goods by sea-going vessels.
Grating Floor of a refrigerated hold / container which is designed so that air can flow along the floor and into the space where the floor is not covered by a load. T-bar gratings comprising aluminium tee profiles are used in refrigerated containers. Hold gratings (braced boards with holes) are normally used on refrigerated cargo ships.

Grey mould rot Storage disease frequently occurring in carrots and tomatoes.
Ground conveyor General term for conveying equipment which runs on wheels along the ground, can be freely steered and is used to convey, pull or push loads, such as forklift trucks or side loaders.
Groupage The grouping together of several consignments into a full load
Handling includes the operation of loading or unloading/discharging of a ship, railway wagon, vehicle or other means of transport;
Handling the operation of loading or unloading/discharging of a ship, railway wagon, vehicle or other means of transport
High cube container Container of standard ISO length and width but with a height of 9' 6" (2.9 m).
Hub Central point for the collection, sorting, transhipment and distribution of goods for a particular area.
Hub port a port that is the destination of liner service where containers are transhipped onto feeder services for maritime transport onto small container ports.
Intermediate bulk container Intermediate bulk container (IBC) shall mean a portable packaging that:
Has a capacity of not more than 3 m3;
Is designed for mechanical handling;
Is resistant to the stresses produced in handling and transport, as determined by tests.
Intermodal refers to the movement of CTUs on all forms of surface transport modes (road, rail, short sea and liner service) without the need for adjustment or alteration to the CTU or transport mode.
Intermodal transport The movement of goods in one and the same loading unit or road vehicle, which uses successively two or more modes of transport without handling the goods themselves in changing modes.
Intermodal loading unit Containers, swap bodies and semi-trailers suitable for intermodal transport.
Intermodal transport unit (ITU) a container, swap body or trailer suitable for intermodal transport;
Intermodality a system of transport whereby two or more modes of transport are used to transport the same loading unit or truck in an integrated manner, without loading or unloading, in a [door to door] transport chain</nowiki>
Land container Container complying with International Railway Union (UIC) specifications, for use in rail-road combined transport.
Lift on – lift off (LO-LO) Loading and unloading of intermodal transport units (ITU, see 4.1) using lifting equipment.
Lift truck a truck equipped with devices such as arms, forks, clamps, hooks etc. to handle any kind of cargo, including cargo that is unitised, overpacked or packed in CTUs;
Limit of liability The maximum sum of money payable by a carrier to a shipper for any damage or loss to the cargo for which the carrier is liable under the contract of carriage. The amount of the limitation is determined by agreement or by law.
Liner service maritime route between two or more major hub ports
Loading track Track on which ITUs are transhipped.
Loading Unit Container or swap body.
Logistic centre Geographical grouping of independent companies and bodies which are dealing with freight transport (for example, freight forwarders, shippers, transport operators, customs) and with accompanying services (for example, storage, maintenance and repair), including at least a terminal.
Logistics The process of designing and managing the supply chain in the wider sense

The chain can extend from the delivery of supplies for manufacturing, through the management of materials at the plant, delivery to warehouses and distribution centres, sorting, handling, packaging and final distribution to point of consumption.

LO-LO Lift on - lift off. Loading and unloading of ITU using lifting equipment
Low dispersible radioactive material Low dispersible radioactive material shall mean either a solid radioactive material or a solid radioactive material in a sealed capsule, that has limited dispersibility and is not in powder form.
Low floor wagon A rail wagon with a low loading platform built to carry, inter alia, ITUs
Low specific activity material Low specific activity (LSA) material shall mean radioactive material that by its nature has a limited specific activity, or radioactive material for which limits of estimated average specific activity apply. External shielding materials surrounding the LSA material shall not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity.
Low toxicity alpha emitters Low toxicity alpha emitters are: natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium, uranium-235 or uranium-238, thorium-232, thorium-228 and thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical and chemical concentrates; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days.
Management system Management system shall mean a set of interrelated or interacting elements (system) for establishing policies and objectives and enabling the objectives to be achieved in an efficient and effective manner.
Marine Carrier Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performanceof carriage by deep sea, coastal or feeder vessel.
Maritime container A container strong enough to be stacked in a cellular ship and to be top lifted
Maximum gross the maximum permissible mass of cargo packed into a CTU combined with the mass of the CTU, also referred to as the rating and would normally be marked onto CTUs as appropriate.
Maximum normal operating pressure Maximum normal operating pressure shall mean the maximum pressure above atmospheric pressure at mean sea level that would develop in the containment system in a period of one year under the conditions of temperature and solar radiation corresponding to environmental conditions in the absence of venting, external cooling by an ancillary system, or operational controls during transport.
Maximum payload the maximum permissible mass of cargo to be packed into or onto a CTU. It is the difference between the maximum gross mass or rating and the tare weight, which are normally marked on CTUs as appropriate;
Multimodal refers to CTUs that are designed for use on more than one mode of transport
Multimodal transport Carriage of goods by two or more modes of transport
Multimodal transport operator (MTO) Any person who concludes a multimodal transport contract and assumes the whole responsibility for the performance thereof as a carrier or a transport operator.
NVOCC Non Vessel Operating Common Carriers: A company that ships goods on behalf of a client, especially internationally, but that does not own its own ships or airplanes. It operates much like any other carrier, issuing its own bills of lading or air waybills.
Non Vessel Operating Container Carrier: A company that ships goods on behalf of a client, especially internationally, but that does not own its own ships or airplanes but does own or operate a number of container for shipping FCL or LCL cargoes for third party shippers.
Over Panamax See Post Panamax
Overloaded A container where the combined mass of the cargo and the container is greater than the maximum gross mass shown on the safety approval plate.
Overpack Overpack shall mean an enclosure used by a single consignor to contain one or more packages and to form one unit for convenience of handling and stowage during transport.
Overpack Overpack shall mean an enclosure used by a single consignor to contain one or more packages and to form one unit for convenience of handling and stowage during transport.
Overpack an enclosure used by a single shipper to contain one or more packages and to form one unit for convenience of handling and stowage during transport.
Examples of overpacks are a number of packages either:
placed or stacked on to a load board such as a pallet and secured by strapping, shrink-wrapping, stretch-wrapping or other suitable means; or
placed in a protective outer packaging such as a box or crate;
Overweight A container where the combined mass of the cargo and the container is less than the maximum gross mass shown on the safety approval plate but exceeds either:
The maximum gross mass shown on the shipping manifest
the road or rail maximum masses when combined with the tare of the container carrying vehicle.
Package Package shall mean the complete product of the packing operation, consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport. The types of package covered by these Regulations that are subject to the activity limits and material restrictions of Section IV and meet the corresponding requirements are:
Excepted package;
Industrial package Type 1 (Type IP-1);
Industrial package Type 2 (Type IP-2);
Industrial package Type 3 (Type IP-3);
Type A package;
Type B(U) package;
Type B(M) package;
Type C package.
Packages containing fissile material or uranium hexafluoride are subject to additional requirements.
Packages the complete product of the packing operation, consisting of the packaging and its contents as prepared for transport;
Packaging receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function
Packaging Packaging shall mean one or more receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacles to perform the containment and other safety functions.
Packer the party that places the goods within the container, trailer or packaging.
Packing the stowage, securing and verification of the mass of packaged and/or unitized or overpacked cargoes into CTUs.
Packing the packing of packaged and/or unitized or overpacked cargoes into CTUs
Pallet A raised platform, normally made of wood, facilitating the handling of goods. Pallets are of standard dimensions. The most used in Europe are 1000 mm x 1200 mm (ISO) and 800 mm x 1200 mm (CEN).
Pallet a term used for a load-carrying platform onto which loose cargo is stacked before being placed inside a container. It is designed to be moved easily by fork-lift trucks.
Panamax Ship with dimensions that allow it to pass through the Panama canal: maximum length 295 m, maximum beam overall 32.25 m, maximum draught 13.50 m.
Piggy back Transport of road vehicles on rail wagons
Pocket wagon A rail wagon with a recessed pocket to accept the axle/wheel assembly of a semi trailer.
Post Panamax Ship with at least one dimension greater than Panamax.
Principal A person for whom another acts as an agent
Private siding Direct rail connection to a company
Radiation level Radiation level shall mean the corresponding dose rate
Radiation protection programme Radiation protection programme shall mean systematic arrangements that are aimed at providing adequate consideration of radiation protection measures.
Radioactive contents Radioactive contents shall mean the radioactive material together with any contaminated or activated solids, liquids and gases within the packaging.
Radioactive material Radioactive material shall mean any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed the values specified in paras 402–407.
Rail loading gauge The profile through which a rail vehicle and its loads (wagons - ITUs) must pass, taking into account tunnels and track-side obstacles
Reach stacker Tractor vehicle with front equipment for lifting, stacking or moving.
Reefer Industry term for a temperature-controlled container. Inside each one is a complex system of coils, wires and electrical fittings, which are managed by a computer that controls everything from the temperature and humidity to ventilation and gas levels, all working to prevent the deterioration of fresh food or other sensitive goods over long distances and periods of time.
Responsible person a person appointed by a shore-side employer who is empowered to take all decisions relating to his/her specific task, having the necessary current knowledge and experience for that purpose, and who, where required, is suitably certificated or otherwise recognized by the regulatory authority;
Road – rail transport Combined transport by rail and road.
Road train A motor vehicle coupled to a trailer (sometimes referred to in English as a drawbar-trailer combination).
ROLA Roll on - Roll off trains. Similar to a piggyback train but the entire road vehicle, tractor unit and trailer, is driven on and off special rail wagons.
Roll on – roll off (RO-RO) Loading and unloading of a road vehicle, a wagon or an ITU on or off a ship on its own wheels or wheels attached to it for that purpose. In the case of rolling road, only road vehicles are driven on and off a train.
Roll on – roll off (RO-RO) Roll on - Roll off. Loading and unloading of a road vehicle, a wagon or an ITU on or off a ship on its own wheels or wheels attached to it for that purpose. In the case of rolling road, only road vehicles are driven on and off a train.
Rolling road Transport of complete road vehicles, using roll-on roll-off techniques, on trains comprising low-floor wagons throughout
Rolling road wagon A rail wagon with low floor throughout which, when coupled together, form a rolling-road
RO-RO ramp A flat or inclined ramp, usually adjustable, which enables road vehicles to be driven onto or off a ship or a rail wagon
Safety approval plate A plate permanently affixed to every approved container at a readily visible place, adjacent to any other approval plate issued for official purposes, where it cannot be easily damaged. The safety approval plate may be combined together with other official plates but all must show:
The words "CSC Safety Approval Plate"
The country of approval and approval reference
Date (month and year) of manufacture
the manufacturer's identification number
Maximum operating gross mass
Allowable stacking mass for 1.8g
Transverse racking test load
also known at the CSC Plate
Semi Trailer A semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of the combined mass of the trailer and its load is supported by a road tractor, by a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly, or by the tail of another trailer. A semi-trailer is normally equipped with landing gear (legs which can be lowered) to support it when it is uncoupled.
Semi-trailer A non-powered vehicle for the carriage of goods, intended to be coupled to a motor vehicle in such a way that a substantial part of its weight and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle. Semi-trailers may have to be specially adapted for use in combined transport.
Sender See Consignor
Ship a seagoing or non-seagoing watercraft, including those used on inland waters:
Shipment Shipment shall mean the specific movement of a consignment from origin to destination.
Shipper See Consignor
Shipper any person or organization paying for its cargo to be shipped from one place to another.
Short sea maritime route between two or more coastal ports normally undertaken by small coastal ships or barges.
Short sea shipping Movement of cargo by sea between ports situated in Europe as well as between ports in Europe and ports situated in non-European countries having a coastline on the enclosed seas bordering Europe.
Shunting the operation when single railway wagons or groups of railway wagons are pushed to run against each other and be coupled together;
Skeletal trailer A skeletal trailer composed of a simple chassis comprising of longitudinal main beams, rolling gear and container support (transverse) beams for the mounting of an intermodal container, sometimes known as a Chassis.
Special arrangement Special arrangement shall mean those provisions, approved by the competent authority, under which consignments that do not satisfy all the applicable requirements of these Regulations may be transported.
Special form radioactive material Special form radioactive material shall mean either an indispersible solid radioactive material or a sealed capsule containing radioactive material.
Specific activity Specific activity of a radionuclide shall mean the activity per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material shall mean the activity per unit mass of the material in which the radionuclides are essentially uniformly distributed.
Spine wagon A rail wagon with a central chassis designed to carry a semi-trailer
Spreader Adjustable fitting on lifting equipment designed to connect with the upper corner fittings of an ITU.

Many spreaders have in addition grappler arms that engage the bottom side rails of an ITU.

Stacking Storage or carriage of ITUs on top of each other.
Stowage the positioning of packages, IBCs, containers, swap-bodies, tank-containers, vehicles or other CTUs on board ships, in warehouses and sheds or in other areas such as terminals;
Straddle carrier A rubber-tyred overhead lifting vehicle for moving or stacking containers on a level reinforced surface.
Stripping Unloading of cargo from an ITU.
Stuffing Loading of cargo into an ITU
Stuffing the act of packing goods within a container or trailer.
Super high cube container Container exceeding ISO dimensions. These dimensions vary and may include, for example, lengths of 45' (13.72 m), 48' (14.64 m), or 53' (16.10 m).
Surface contaminated object Surface contaminated object (SCO) shall mean a solid object that is not itself radioactive but which has radioactive material distributed on its surface.
Swap body A freight carrying unit optimised to road vehicle dimensions and fitted with handling devices for transfer between modes, usually road/rail.
Swap-body a CTU not permanently attached to an underframe and wheels or to a chassis and wheels, with at least four twistlock that take into account ISO standard 1161:1984. A swap-body need not be stackable but is usually equipped with support legs, designed especially for combined road-rail transport;
Tank Tank shall mean a portable tank (including a tank container), a road tank vehicle, a rail tank wagon or a receptacle that contains solids, liquids, or gases, having a capacity of not less than 450 L when used for the transport of gases.
Tare Weight of ITU or vehicle without cargo
Tare mass / weight The mass of the empty container including permanently affixed ancillary equipment.
Terminal A place equipped for the transhipment and storage of ITUs.
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. A standard unit based on an ISO container of 20 feet length (6.10 m), used as a statistical measure of traffic flows or capacities.

One standard 40' ISO Series I container equals 2 TEUs

Through or into Through or into shall mean through or into the countries in which a consignment is transported but specifically excludes countries over which a consignment is carried by air, provided that there are no scheduled stops in those countries.
Track gauge The distance between the internal sides of rails on a railway line. It is generally 1.435 m.

Other gauges are generally used in some European countries: for instance, 1.676 m in Spain and Portugal, 1.524 m in the Russian Federation.

Trailer A non-powered vehicle for the carriage of goods, intended to be coupled to a motor vehicle, excluding semi-trailers.
Trailer any road vehicle without a motive power unit, and includes semi-trailers, semi-trailers with front axle dollies, full trailers and drawbar trailers.
Transhipment Moving ITUs from one means of transport to another.
Transport movement of cargo by one or more modes of transport;
Transport The movement of cargo by one or more modes of transport
Transport index Transport index (TI) assigned to a package, overpack or freight container, or to unpackaged LSA-I or SCO-I, shall mean a number that is used to provide control over radiation exposure.
Transport operator The person responsible for the carriage of goods, either directly or using a third party.
Twenty Foot Equivalent unit (teu) A standard unit based on an ISO container of twenty feet length (6.10m), used as a statistical measure of traffic flow or capacity.
Twistlock Standard mechanism on handling equipment which engages and locks into the corner fittings of ITU; also used on ships and vehicles to fix ITUs.
Twistlock A twistlock and corner casting together form a standardised rotating connector for securing shipping containers. The primary uses are for locking a container into place on container ship, semi-trailer truck or railway container train; and for lifting of the containers by container cranes and sidelifters.
Unaccompanied combined transport Transport of a road vehicle or an intermodal transport unit (ITU, see 4.1), not accompanied by the driver, using another mode of transport (for example a ferry or a train).
Unirradiated thorium Unirradiated thorium shall mean thorium containing not more than 10-7 g of uranium-233 per gram of thorium-232.
Unirradiated uranium Unirradiated uranium shall mean uranium containing not more than 2 × 103 Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium-235, not more than 9 × 106 Bq of fission products per gram of uranium-235 and not more than 5 × 10–3 g of uranium-236 per gram of uranium-235.
Unit load Palletised load or prepacked unit with a footprint conforming to pallet dimensions and suitable for loading into an ITU
Unit load a number of packages that are:
placed or stacked on and secured by strapping, shrink-wrapping or other suitable means to a load board such as a pallet; or
placed in a protective outer enclosure such as a pallet box; or
permanently secured together in a sling;
Unpacking the removal of cargo from CTUs.
Vehicle Vehicle shall mean a road vehicle (including an articulated vehicle, i.e. a tractor and semi-trailer combination), railroad car or railway wagon. Each trailer shall be considered as a separate vehicle.
Vehicle a road vehicle or railway freight wagon, permanently attached to an underframe and wheels or to a chassis and wheels, which is loaded and unloaded as a unit. It also includes a trailer or similar mobile unit except those used solely for the purposes of loading and unloading.
Vessel Vessel shall mean any seagoing vessel or inland waterway craft used for carrying cargo.


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AAPA American Association of Port Authorities
AAPMA Australian Association of Port and Maritime Authorities
AAR Association of American Railroads
ACEP Approved continuous examination programme
ADR European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
AMSA Australian Marine Safety Authority
ANSI American National Standards Institution
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
BIC Bureau International des Containers et du Transport Intermodal.
BIFA British International freight Association
BIMCO Baltic and International Maritime Council
BLU CoP for Safe Loading & Unloading of Bulk Carriers
BP Safety Briefing Pamphlet
BSI British Standards Institute
CCC Carrier Container Council
CDI-mpc Chemical Distribution Institute – Marine Packed Cargo
CEFIC Council Europeen de I’Industrie Chimique (European Trade Association for Chemicals)
CEN European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation)
CG Correspondence Group
CGPM Comité International des Poids et Mesures (General Conference on Weights and Measures)
CIA Chemical Industries Association
CIM International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail
CIRIA The Construction Industry Research and Information Association
CLECAT European Association for Forwarding, Transport, Logistics and Customs Services
COA Container Owners Association
COP Code of Practice
CPC Certificate of Professional Competence
CSC Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) 1972
CTU Cargo Transport Unit
DE Ship Design & Equipment Sub-Committee
DG Drafting Group
DG MOVE European Commission’s Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport
DG VII Directorate/General VII Transport
DIS Draft International Standard
DnV Det Norske Veritas
DOL Department of Labour
DSC Dangerous Goods Solid Cargoes and Containers Sub-Committee
E&T Editorial and Technical Group
ECE Economic Commission for Europe (UN Agency)
ECH Empty container handler
ECOSOC Economic and Social Council (UN Agency)
EFFA European Freight Forwarders' Association
EFIPA European Federation of Inland Ports Association
EIA European Intermodal Association
ESA European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
ESC European Shippers' Council
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN Agency)
ESPO European Sea Ports Organization
ESPO European Sea Ports Association
EU European Union
FAL Facilitation Committee
FAT Fully automated twistlock
FCL Full container load
FDIS Final Draft International Standard
FEPORT Federation of European Private Port Operators
FEU Forty-foot Equivalent Unit
FIATA International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations
FIATA International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations
FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
FTA Freight Transport Association
GSF Global Shippers' Forum
HNS Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention
HSE Health and Safety Executive
IACS International Association of Classification Societies
IAEA International Atomic Energy Authority
IAPH International Association of Ports and Harbours
IATA International Air Transport Association
IBC Intermediate Bulk Container
IBTA International Bulk Terminals Association
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICGB International Cargo Gear Bureau, Inc.
ICHCA ICHCA International Limited
ICS International Chamber of Shipping
IFA International Freight Association
IFCOR International Intermodal Freight Container Reporting Organisation
IFPTA International Forest Products Transport Association
IHMA International Harbour Masters Association
IICL Institute of International Container Lessors
IIMS International Institute of Marine Surveyors
IISPCG Inter Industry Shipping & Ports Contact Group
ILA International Longshoremen’s Association
ILO International Labour Organisation
ILWU International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods
IMMTA International MultiModal Transport Association
IMO International Maritime Organisation
IOSH Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
IRU International Road Transport Union
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISO International Standards Organisation
ISP International Safety Panel of ICHCA
ISPS International Shipping & Ports Security Code
ISTDG International Symposium on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Inland Waterways
ITCO International Tank Container Owners Association
ITF International Transport Workers’ Federation
ITF International Transport Forum
IUMI International Union of Marine Insurers
LCL Less than a container load
MAIIF Marine Accident Investigators' International Forum
MARPOL / MARPOL 73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978
MCA Maritime and Coastguard Agency
MEPC Marine Environment Protection Committee
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MSC Maritime Safety Committee
NGB National Cargo Bureau Inc
NI Nautical Institute
NMSA National Maritime Safety Association
NPC National Ports Council
NSC National Safety Council
NVOCC Non Vessel Owning Common Carrier
NVOCC Non Vessel Owning Cargo Consolidators
NVOCC Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier / Container Carrier
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Agency
PAS Publicly Available Specification
PDG Packaged Dangerous Goods
PDP Port workers Development Programme
PEMA Port Equipment Manufacturers Association
RHA Road Haulage Association
RID Regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
RP Research Paper
SATLs Semi Automatic Twistlocks
SC Sub Committee
SIGTTO Society for International Gas Tanker & Terminal Operations Limited
SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974
SOLAS /SOLAS 74 Safety of Life at Sea (Convention, 1974)
SPI Ship Port Interface
SWL Safe Working Load
TC104 International Standards Organization Technical Committee 104 –freight containers
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit
TIR Transport Internationaux Routiers System
TOA Technical and Operational Advice document
TREMCARD Transport Emergency Card issued by CEFIC (Intended to comply with the “instructions in writing” requirements in certain road transport regulations, eg: ADR)
TT Club Through Trading Mutual Insurance Association Limited
UIC Union Internationale de Chemins de Fers
UIRR Union Internationale des Societes de Transport Combine Rail-Route
UN United Nations
UN ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNISTOCK European Federation of Silo Operators
USCG United States Coastguard
UTITI University of Toledo Intermodal Transportation Institute
VTL Vertical Tandem Lifting
WCO World Customs Organisation
WG Working Group
WHO World Health Organization
WMU World Maritime University
WP.15 UN ECE Working Party on the Transport of Dangerous goods (deals with ADR)
WP.24 UN ECE Working Party on Intermodal Transport and Logistics
WSC World Shipping Council