Difference between revisions of "Mangoes"

From Cargo Handbook - the world's largest cargo transport guidelines website
Line 6: Line 6:
| Optimum humidity                    = 85%-90%  
| Optimum humidity                    = 85%-90%  
| Ventilation setting for containers  = 25 m³/hr   
| Ventilation setting for containers  = 25 m³/hr   
| Storage life                        = 2-3 weeks
| Storage life                        = 3-4 weeks
| Climateric / non-climateric        = Climacteric  
| Climateric / non-climateric        = Climacteric  
| Ethylene production                = Moderate
| Ethylene production                = Moderate

Revision as of 17:30, 1 November 2017

Infobox on Mangoes
Example of Mangoes
Freshness facts
Optimum carrying temperature 8°-10°C
Highest freezing point -1°C
Acceptable product temp. at loading into containers Max. 2°C above carrying temperature
Optimum humidity 85%-90%
Ventilation setting for containers 25 m³/hr
Storage life 3-4 weeks
Climacteric / non-climacteric Climacteric
Ethylene production Moderate
Ethylene sensitivity High
Modified / controlled atmosphere 5%-8% CO2; 3%-7% O2
Potential benefits Low O2 can delay ripening
Elevated CO2 maintains firmness
South Africa
South America
Central America
November - January
January - May
September - March
January - October


Harvesting and handling

Mango is cultivated throughout the tropics and warmer sub-tropics. There are numerous varieties, with the varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden being the most common. Fruit skin is yellow or green with a golden to red blush. Weight can vary from 200 g to 1 kg and can be round, oval or kidney shaped. Some varieties have a turpentine like smell and taste.

Skin colouration, size, shape for variety, appearance, freedom from defects and decay, absence of fibre in the flesh and turpentine-like flavours are the most common quality parameters. Wilted, greyish discolouration and pitting are undesirable. Some fruit varieties (Haden) have pinhead-size black spotting that is not regarded as a defect.

Mangoes are highly pressure- and impact-sensitive and appropriate care must therefore be taken during cargo handling.

Cooling and storage

Mangoes show a climacteric pattern of respiration and, during ripening, the flesh becomes soft and juicy with a rich flavour and aromatic fragrance. The onset of ripening is accompanied by a five-fold increase in heat production. In view of this substantial increase in heat production which accompanies the onset of ripening (before any visual change is apparent), it is essential that fruit for overseas shipment be cooled as soon as possible, preferably within 24 hours of harvest. If more than a small proportion of mangoes has entered the climacteric stage by the time of loading into refrigerated space, there is a risk that heat production by the mangoes may impose too great a burden on the cooling cycles. If this happens, more and more fruit is triggered into ripening in an atmosphere depleted of oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide and ethylene; the temperature rises further and ripening proceeds in abnormal fashion. Inadequate ventilation may result in fermentation and rotting of the cargo as a result of increased CO2 levels and inadequate supply of atmospheric oxygen.

Storage at 8°C to 10°C with 85% to 90% RH, should give a shelf-life of 3-4 weeks for mature green fruit, depending upon variety. Chilling susceptibility varies with cultivar; Haden and Keitt are particularly susceptible. Most cultivars show injury below 8°C, especially if fruit have just reached maturity. Tolerance to chilling injury increases during ripening. Ripe fruit can be stored at 7°C to 8°C.

Symptoms of chilling injury include uneven ripening, poor colour and flavour, surface pitting, greyish scald-like skin discoloration, increased susceptibility to decay, and, in severe cases, flesh browning. Chilling injury incidence and severity depend on cultivar, ripeness stage (riper mangoes are less susceptible) and temperature and duration of exposure.

Mixed loads

Do not ship with ethylene-producing commodities


O2 below 2% for longer than two weeks can cause off-flavours and skin discoloration. CO2 above 10% can cause softening, off-flavours and greyish flesh colour.

Storage disorders

Alternaria black spot, Anthracnose, Bacterial black spot, Bacterial rot, Black mould rot, Chilling injury, Internal breakdown, Powdery mildew, Soft nose, Stem end breakdown, Stem end rot.