|Infobox on Essences, Fruit|
|Example of Essences, Fruit|
|Stowage factor (in m3/t)||-|
|Humidity / moisture||-|
|Risk factors||See text|
Description / Application
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form.
The aromatic principles of many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, lemon, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, pistachio, rose, spearmint, vanilla, violet, and wintergreen.
The majority of natural essences are obtained by extracting the essential oil from the blossoms, fruit, roots, etc., or the whole plants, through four techniques:
- Expression when the oil is very plentiful and easily obtained, as in lemon peel.
- Absorption is generally accomplished by steeping in alcohol, as vanilla beans.
- Maceration is used to create smaller bits of the whole, as in making peppermint extract, etc.
- Distillation is used with maceration, but in many cases, it requires expert chemical knowledge and the erection of costly stills.
The distinctive flavours of nearly all fruits, in the popular acceptance of the word, are desirable adjuncts to many food preparations, but only a few are practical sources of sufficiently concentrated flavour extract. The most important among those that lend themselves to "pure" extract manufacture include lemons, oranges, and vanilla beans.
A majority of other, concentrated fruit flavours, such as banana, cherry, currant, peach, pineapple, raspberry and strawberry, are produced by combinations of various esters, together with special oils. The desired colours are generally obtained by the use of dyes. Among the esters most generally employed are ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate. The chief factors in the production of artificial banana and pineapple extract, and also important in the manufacture of strawberry extract, are amyl acetate and amyl butyrate, amyl alcohol being the principal constituent of that part of the alcohol obtained by the distillation of grain and potato starch, which is popularly known in the US as fusel oil and in Europe, generally by the title of potato oil.
Artificial extracts generally do not possess the delicacy of natural fruit flavour, but usually get close enough to provide real service and convenience when true essences are unobtainable or too expensive.
Shipment / Storage / Risk factors
These commodities are usually shipped in plastic containers, packed in strong wooden cases.
Are subject to damage if stowed near boilers or other hot spaces, in which case, through expansion of the liquid, containers may leak, causing the essence to change colour and loose flavour potency.