From Cargo Handbook - the world's largest cargo transport guidelines website
Infobox on Chilies
Example of Chilies
  • Europe
  • Africa: Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda
  • Asia: India, China, Korea, Vietnam, Pakistan, Thailand, Japan
  • America: Mexico, USA
  • Australia
Stowage factor (in m3/t)
  • 3.53 m3/t (flat jute fabric bags, 20 kg)
  • 2.65 - 3.07 m3/t (bags)
  • 5.57 - 6.97 m3/t (bales)
  • 1.80 - 2.51 m3/t (cayenne pepper in bags)
Humidity / moisture
  • Relative humidity 60 - 70%
  • Water content 8 - 12%
  • Maximum equilibrium moisture content 65%
Oil content 1.0- 3.2% essential oils, in particular capsaicin
Ventilation If the product is at "shipping dryness", it does not have to be ventilated during transport. However, if the water content is excessive, apply air exchange rate of 10 changes/hour (airing)
Risk factors In addition to the residual water content remaining after drying, the risk of self-heating is also explained by the relatively high content of fatty oils.



Chili pepper pods, which are berries, are used fresh or dried. Chilies are dried to preserve them for long periods of time or may also be done by pickling.
Dried chilies (i.e. hot peppers) are often ground into powders, although the entire chili can be used also. Dried whole chilies may be reconstituted before grinding to a paste.
The color of the conically pointed pods range from orange-yellow to yellowish-red and they are a hotter spice than the larger sweet peppers.
After processing, spices are cleaned, graded, dried and packed for overseas dispatch. In importing countries, they are delivered to spice mills, where they are cleaned and graded again, to be traded as ground or unground produce.

See also Capsicum


Chilies are used in the food and pharmaceutical industry.

Shipment / storage

Chilies are packed and transported in bags. Extraneous moisture affection may initiate mold growth, spoilage and self-heating.

Favourable travel temperature range is 5° - 25°C. At temperatures of > 25°C, Essential Oils may be lost and there is a risk of self-heating.

Risk factors

  • Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion
  • Odor
  • Contamination
  • Mechanical influences
  • Toxicity / Hazards to health
  • Shrinkage / Shortage
  • Insect infestation / Diseases