Orchids

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Infobox on Orchids
Example of Orchids
Orchids.jpg
Facts
Origin -
Stowage factor (in m3/t) -
Humidity / moisture -
Ventilation -
Risk factors See text

Description / Shipment / Storage / Risk factors

Scientific Name and Introduction

Cattleya, Cymbidium cvs and hybrids. Additional genera in the plant family Orchidaceae are Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, Vanda and Paphiopedilum. In addition to their exotic forms and colours, one of the principal attractions of cut orchid flowers is their outstanding longevity. Even out of water, an orchid flower will last for an evening in a corsage. Spikes of cymbidiums will often last a month in a vase.

Quality Characteristics and Criteria

Orchid flowers are usually harvested 3 to 4 days after opening, because flowers cut prematurely will fail to develop normally off the plant. Early and late in the season, individual flowers are cut from the spike as they develop, because prices are high at these times. In mid-season, the whole spike is cut. Virus diseases can be spread from plant to plant during harvest, so cutting tools should be sterilized before being used on the next plant, or disposable razor blades should be used. As individual flowers, purchase when fully open. Spikes should be purchased when at least two flowers per spike are open.

Grading and Bunching

There are no grade standards for orchids. Freedom from defects is a primary measure of quality.

Ethylene Sensitivity

Some genera like Cymbidium and Phalaenopsis, are very sensitive to ethylene; others like Dendrobium are less sensitive.

Pretreatments

Pretreatment with 1-MCP is very effective in preventing the effects of ethylene and increasing the life of orchid flowers and should be standard practice for these flowers.

Storage Conditions

Can range from 0°C to 12,5ºC depending on cultivar. Many cultivars are not chill sensitive and therefore can be stored as other cut flowers at 0°C to 1ºC. If feasible, leaving flowers on the plants at room temperature is a good storage procedure. Be careful not to remove or knock off the pollinia (anthers) as this causes an immediate surge in ethylene production, which in turn causes premature death.

Packing

Because of their fragility and relatively high value, most orchids are packed as individual flowers or spikes, frequently in shredded paper to cushion and protect them from mechanical injury to the blooms. They are then packed 12 to 24 flowers in each carton. Box inserts hold individual water tubes stationary. Shredded wax paper is tucked around and between the flowers for additional protection.

Special Considerations

Only some species and cultivars are ethylene sensitive which explains why anti-ethylene treatments like STS and 1-MCP work only some of the time. The two most common ethylene-induced symptoms are flower discoloration and premature wilting and flower fall. Demand has increased for this species prepared as a corsage and sold through mass market outlets at Easter and Mothers’ Day. When sold for corsages the use of water picks filled with fresh-flower solution (not plain tap water) is beneficial.


Sources used
BMT De Beer’s Consolidated Manual on (Dutch) Flower Bulbs, cut flowers/greens and potted plants