CKD (Cars Knocked Down)
|Infobox on CKD (Cars Knocked Down)|
|Example of CKD (Cars Knocked Down)|
|Stowage factor (in m3/t)|
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Description / Application
A knock-down kit is a kit containing the parts needed to assemble a product. The parts are typically manufactured in one country or region, then exported to another country or region for final assembly.
A common form of knock-down is a complete knock-down (CKD), which is a complete kit needed to assemble a product. It is also a method of supplying parts to a market, particularly in shipping to foreign nations, and serves as a way of counting or pricing. CKD is a common practice within the automotive industry, the bus and heavy truck industry, and the rail vehicle industry, as well as electronics, furniture, and in other products. Businesses sell knocked down kits to their foreign affiliates or licensees for various reasons, including to avoid import taxes, to receive tax preferences for providing local manufacturing jobs, or even to be considered as a bidder at all (for example, in public transit projects with "buy national" rules).
An incomplete kit is known as SKD for semi-knocked-down. Both types of KDs, complete and incomplete, are collectively referred to within the auto industry as KDX (for knocked-down export), and cars assembled in the country of origin and exported whole to the destination market are known as BUX (for built-up export).
The terms "knockdown" or "kits of parts" are both misnomers, because the knockdowns were never built up in the first place, and the shipments of parts are often not in the form of kits, but rather bulk-packed by type of part into shipping containers. The degree of "knockdown" depends on the desires and technical abilities of the receiving organization or on government import regulations. Developing nations may pursue trade and economic policies that call for import substitution or local content regulations. Companies with CKD operations help the country substitute the finished products it imports with locally assembled substitutes.
Knockdown kit assembling plants are less expensive to establish and maintain, because they do not need modern robotic equipment, and the workforce is usually much less expensive in comparison to the home country. They may also be effective for low-volume production. The CKD concept allows firms in developing markets to gain expertise in a particular industry. At the same time, the CKD kit exporting company gains new markets that would otherwise be closed.
Shipment / Storage
These are shipped in cases or crates and in the unboxed condition. In cases or crates, the cars may be shipped intact with certain parts dismantled to enable better use to be made of the stowage space. Cars Knocked Down, abbreviated to C.K.D., or Part Knocked Down - P.K.D.
Stow cases and crates on perfectly level and solid surfaces, never on their sides. Chock off and fill broken stowage with strongly built cases (not bales, which will be liable to chafe or light goods liable to crush).If overstowing with these packages, the lower block of cargo must be closely overlaid with stout boards so as to provide a level and stable platform, each tier of cases or crates to be similarly overlaid in order that the superimposed weight is distributed as evenly as possible and so to avoid distortion and straining of the packages. If overstowing with other cargo, select light goods for that purpose. Crates of CKD are often stored in the pen prior to shipment, so that while the contents may themselves be protected by the packaging, coatings of grease, etc., the timber may have a very high moisture content especially if unseasoned or green timber is used in their construction. Ice or snow maybe adhering to the crates and, in some instances, pools of water may be lying on the waterproof covers. In these circumstances other cargo stowed in the same compartment or container may be affected by this source of moisture. When carried from temperate to hot weather, the protective oil coatings on some of the contents may liquefy and leak out of the crates, to the possible detriment of cargo in the same compartment or container.
CKD in ISO containers will achieve poor space utilisation unless the crates and packaging have been designed specifically to fit inside an ISO container. General Purpose containers and Insulated containers have different internal dimensions and the module developed for one will not necessarily successfully fit the other. Consideration must be given at time of stuffing for the problems of removing CKD from the container at destination. A tight-fitting module that has to be pushed to the rear of the container with mechanical handling equipment, may be impossible to extract without damaging the crate. Where bearers exist, they should be in line with the direction of approach of any mechanical handling equipment and assistance can be given by leaving snotters or slings suitably positioned to help drag the cargo out. The concern over moisture migration from crates with high moisture content is even more important in ISO containers, which will develop their own micro-climate in varying ambient conditions. Crates should be absolutely dry at time of stuffing with a moisture content of less than 14 per cent. Unpacked vehicles are normally left at the quayside, prior to loading, in a drivable condition with the windows closed, the doors and boot lids locked and all electrical systems switched off. Aerials should be in the collapsed position.
Vehicles should only be left with their keys inside the car, if they are in a fenced area with adequate security. Hand brakes should be fully on. In the case of sports cars and convertibles, they may require the protection of a shed during their term on the quayside. Identification markings must not be made on the hoods or windows. Vehicles should never be moved by means of the starter motor. Engines should never be started by using reverse or low gear or when moving vehicles down the ramps or pushing or towing them with other vehicles. Vehicles should not be moved under their own power unless adequate ventilation is provided to dispel the fumes. Where slings are used, spreader bars should be of sufficient length to prevent any contact of the lifting gear with the vehicle itself. When lifting nets are used, it must be ensured that the body work is not touched by any part of the net. Steel work should be padded where necessary to prevent risk of damage to painted surfaces. Drag ropes should be fitted where necessary to the platforms, front and/or rear of vehicles, to improve control and manoeuvring. Scissor gear should never be used. Vehicles must not be shipped as deck cargo without the shippers' knowledge and/or consent. Engines should be switched off, together with all electrical systems. Hand brakes should be applied firmly. Vehicles stowed athwartships should be left in gear or in the parked mode for automatic vehicles.
N.B. these latter requirements should not normally be carried out for vehicles parked fore and aft. Check that the bonnet, boot lid or tail gate and windows are properly closed and that the keys are not left in the boot lid or door locks. Upper and lower stern ramps provide access to two levels.
IMDG Code requirements should be followed regarding the disconnection of batteries, the taping of battery terminals and the requirements for petrol in the tank. Vehicles should not normally be stowed closer than 230 mm (9") to each other or any stanchion, ladder, bulkhead, etc. Some manufacturers require a greater clearance between each vehicle and the nearest obstruction. If a row of vehicles are being stowed one alongside each other, then the clearance for the end car(to allow the driver an exit) should be not less than 400 mm (16").
N.B. Australian labour require 450 mm clear between vehicles. It is the Master's responsibility to ensure that all vehicles are correctly secured in the stow. Each vehicle should be secured by at least 4 lashings, more if stowed athwartships. Approved lashing points may be provided by the shipper, however, normally the requirement is to secure by a point that will not be affected by the suspension; e.g. towing brackets; leaf springs (near shackle); axle beam; special brackets. However, heavy vehicles may require one or more lashing to be taken from the chassis. Normally lashed vehicles should not be left in gear, except when the vehicle is parked athwartships. Lashings should be taken down and away from the vehicle, so as not to foul any part of the body work, while providing both downward and horizontal restraint. On no account should vehicles be secured to each other .In the process of stowing and securing vehicles, labour should not be permitted to climb over the vehicles, crawl across them or stand upon them. Personnel employed to drive and secure vehicles should hold valid driver's licences. They must be issued with clean overalls which should not have metal buckles nor fastenings which could damage upholstery or paintwork. Special attention should be taken when removing lashing equipment, so as not to damage the vehicles. No attempt should be made to move or lift a vehicle while any lashings are still in place.
Unpacked vehicles in ISO containers — it may not always be possible to drive vehicles into a closed box container, since the restricted internal width of the container may prevent the vehicle doors being opened. Securing is best achieved using both lashings and timber shoring. Lashings should be taken to the appropriate lashing points in the container floor and timber shoring nailed alongside the wheels, in front of the front wheels and behind the rear wheels. Timber across the front and rear should be chamfered to reduce wear and rub in the tyres. Other cargo should not normally be stowed in the same container, though, if space permits, suitable bagged stuff may be stuffed to form a level support onto which the vehicle may be rolled. Access to the lashing points must still be possible with this type of stow.
Do not accept when wet or leaking.
See also Automobiles
- Physical damage
- (Sea) water damage
- Theft (accessories)